FIG. 13-91 Example of crude-oil TBP cut points.

As shown in Fig. 13-92, methods of providing column reflux include (a) conventional top-tray reflux, (b) pump-back reflux from side-cut strippers, and (c) pump-around reflux. The latter two methods essentially function as intercondenser schemes that reduce the top-tray-reflux requirement. As shown in Fig. 13-93 for the example being considered, the internal-reflux flow rate decreases rapidly from the top tray to the feed-flash zone for case a. The other two cases, particularly case c, result in better balancing of the column-reflux traffic. Because of this and the opportunity provided to recover energy at a moderate- to high-temperature level, pump-around reflux is the most commonly used technique. However, not indicated in Fig. 13-93 is the fact that in cases b and c the smaller quantity of reflux present in the upper portion of the column increases the tray requirements. Furthermore, the pump-around circuits, which extend over three trays each, are believed to be equivalent for mass-transfer purposes to only one tray each. Representative tray requirements for the three cases are included in Fig. 13-92. In case c heat-transfer rates associated with the two pump-around circuits account for approximately 40 percent of the total heat removed in the overhead condenser and from the two pump-around circuits combined.

Bottoms and three side-cut strippers remove light ends from products and may utilize steam or reboilers. In Fig. 13-92 a reboiled stripper is utilized on the light distillate, which is the largest side cut withdrawn. Steam-stripping rates in side-cut strippers and at the bottom of the atmospheric column may vary from 0.45 to 4.5 kg (1 to 10 lb) of steam per barrel of stripped liquid, depending on the fraction of stripper feed liquid that is vaporized.

Column pressure at the reflux drum is established so as to condense totally the overhead vapor or some fraction thereof. Flash-zone pressure is approximately 69 kPa (10 psia) higher. Crude-oil feed temper-

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