The availability of computers has decreased our reliance on graphical methods. Nevertheless, diagrams are useful for quick approximations and for demonstrating the effect of various design variables. The x-y diagram is the most convenient for these purposes, and its use is developed in detail here. The use of the enthalpy-concentration diagram is given by Smith (Design of Equilibrium Stage Processes, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963) and Henley and Seader (Equilibrium-Stage Separation Operations in Chemical Engineering, Wiley, New York, 1981).
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