note: To convert degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, °C = (°F - 32)/1.8.

note: To convert degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, °C = (°F - 32)/1.8.

75.0 91

61.3 106

50.0 137

41.8 177

19.1 480

FIG. 13-88 Catalytic cracking unit. (New Horizons, Lummus Co., New York, 1954.)
FIG. 13-89 Delayed-coking unit. (Watk(ns, Petroleum Refinery Distillation, 2nd ed., Gulf Houston, 1979.)
FIG. 13-90 Crude atmospheric tower.

TBP cut point between the heavy distillate and the bottoms = 650°F. Percent overflash = 2 volume percent of feed. Furnace outlet temperature = 343°C (650°F) maximum. Overhead temperature in reflux drum = 49°C (120°F) minimum.

From the product specifications, distillate yields are computed as follows: From Fig. 13-86 and the ASTM D 86 50 percent temperatures, TBP 50 percent temperatures of the three intermediate cuts are obtained as 155, 236, and 316°C (311, 456, and 600°F) for the HN, LD, and HD respectively. The TBP cut points, corresponding volume fractions of crude oil, and flow rates of the four distillates are readily obtained by starting from the specified 343°C (650°F) cut point as follows, where CP is the cut point and T is the TBP temperature (°F):

(cphd,b — thd 50)

= 650

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