Introduction

As discussed in detail by Archer and Rothfus [Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp. Series, No. 36, 57, 2 (1961)], dynamic or transient behavior of a continuous-distillation operation is important in determining (1) startup and shutdown procedures, (2) transition path between steady states, (3) effect of upsets and fluctuations on controllability, (4) residence times and mass-transfer rates, and (5) operating strategies that may involve deliberate imposition of controlled cyclic fluctuations or oscillations, as summarized by Schrodt [Ind. Eng. Chem., 59(6), 58 (1967)]. Dynamic behavior may be studied with no controllers in the system to obtain a so-called open-loop response. Alternatively, controllers may be added for certain variables that are to be controlled by manipulating other variables to obtain a so-called closed-loop response. For this latter case, controllers of various levels of complexity [e.g., on-off, proportional (P), proportional with integral action (PI), and proportional with integral and derivative action (PID)] can be considered for various values of tuning parameters, and specific valves of known characteristics may be incorporated if desired.

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Making Your Own Wine

Making Your Own Wine

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