Although the principles of multicomponent distillation apply to petroleum, synthetic crude oil, and other complex mixtures, this subject warrants special consideration for the following reasons:
1. Such feedstocks are of exceedingly complex composition, consisting, in the case of petroleum, of many different types of hydrocarbons and perhaps of inorganic and other organic compounds. The number of carbon atoms in the components may range from 1 to more than 50, so that the compounds may exhibit atmospheric-pressure boiling points from -162°C (-259°F) to more than 538°C (1000°F). In a given boiling range, the number of different compounds that exhibit only small differences in volatility multiplies rapidly with increasing boiling point. For example, 16 of the 18 octane isomers boil within a range ofonly 12°C (22°F).
2. Products from the distillation of complex mixtures are in themselves complex mixtures. The character and yields of these products vary widely, depending upon the source of the feedstock. Even crude oils from the same locality may exhibit marked variations.
3. The scale of petroleum-distillation operations is generally large, and, as discussed in detail by Nelson (Petroleum Refinery Engineering, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958) and Watkins (Petroleum Refinery Distillation, 2d ed., Gulf, Houston, 1979), such operations are common in several petroleum-refinery processes including atmospheric distillation of crude oil, vacuum distillation of bottoms residuum obtained from atmospheric distillation, main fractionation of gaseous effluent from catalytic cracking of various petroleum fractions, and main fractionation of effluent from thermal coking of various petroleum fractions. These distillation operations are conducted in large pieces of equipment that can consume large quantities of energy. Therefore, optimization of design and operation is very important and frequently leads to a relatively complex equipment configuration.
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