FIG. 13-7 Separation operations related to distillation. (a) Flush vaporization or partial condensation. (b ) Absorption. (c) Rectifier. (d) Stripping. (e) Reboiled stripping. ( f) Reboiled absorption. (g) Refluxed stripping. (h) Extractive distillation. (i) Azeotropic distillation.

boiling azeotrope with one or more components of the feed is utilized. The azeotrope is taken overhead, and the MSA-rich phase is decanted and returned to the top of the column as reflux.

Numerous other multistaged configurations are possible. One important variation of a stripper, shown in Fig. 13-7^ is a refluxed stripper, in which an overhead condenser is added. Such a configuration is sometimes used to steam-strip sour water containing NH3, H2O, phenol, and HCN.

All the separation operations shown in Fig. 13-7, as well as the simple and complex distillation operations described earlier, are referred to here as distillation-type separations because they have much in common with respect to calculations of (1) thermodynamic properties, (2) vapor-liquid equilibrium stages, and (3) column sizing. In fact, as will be evident from the remaining treatment of this section, the trend is toward single generalized digital-computer-program packages that compute many or all distillation-type separation operations.

This section also includes a treatment of distillation-type separations from a rate-based point of view that utilizes principles of mass transfer and heat transfer. Section 14 also presents details of that subject as applied to absorption and stripping.

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