Family Members Ebooks Catalog
Many of the unit operations are mechanized and automated, and, other than requiring a few keystrokes from a control panel, the manufacture of fermented foods involves minimal human contact. Fermented food production is now, more than ever before, subject to time and scheduling demands. In the so-called old days, if the fermentation was slow or sluggish, it simply meant that the workers (who were probably family members) would be late for supper, and little else. In a modern production operation, a slow fermentation may mean that the workers have to stay beyond their shift (requiring that they be paid overtime), and in many cases, it could also affect the entire production schedule, since the production vat could not be turned over and refilled as quickly as needed.Al-though traditional manufacturing practices may not have always yielded consistent products, lot sizes were small and economic losses due to an occasional misstep were not likely to be too se
Aldehyde reductase was isolated in a crystalline form from cells of S. salmonicolor and was characterized in some detail (35-37). It should be noted that the cellular content of the enzyme comprised more than 4.5 of the total ex-tractable protein. The enzyme has a monomeric form of about 35 kDa. The enzyme absolutely requires NADPH as a cofactor. The substrate specificity of the enzyme is shown in Table 1. The enzyme did not catalyze the reduction of any keto acids or monoketones tested. Several aldehydes such as p-nitrobenzaldehyde, p-chlorobenzaldehyde, pyridine-3-aldehyde, or D-glyceraldehyde were readily reduced. These aldehydes are typical substrates for aldo-keto reductase family members, as already described. Qui-nones, such as p-benzoquinone, a-naphthoquinone, -naphthoquinone, and menadione, which are good substrates for carbonyl reductases (14), were not reduced. Although no detectable oxidation of NADPH was observed with D-glucuronate, D-glucose, D-xylose, or D-galactose as...
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