Substrates used for tempeh production

Traditionally, tempeh was made from soybean. Yellow-seeded soybeans are usually preferred as raw material (Sharma & Sarbhoy, 1984), but many different substrates can be used to produce tempeh (Table 1). Some substrates can only be processed to obtain high quality tempeh by combining them with soybeans (Wang et al., 1968; Mugula, 1992; Shurtleff & Aoyagi, 2001) or can only be used to produce protein-rich tempeh flour (Cuevas-Rodriguez et al., 2004). To my knowledge, most of the substrates listed in table 1 have only been tested under laboratory conditions, and have not reached the stage of industrial production.

Tempeh Production
Fig. 2. Production of Mei Dou Za (a. residue from tofu production, b. formed residue, c. ready for natural fermentation, d. freshly fermented (about 3 days fermentation), e. mature Mei Dou Za, f. sliced and dried Mei Dou Za) (Photos taken in Qian Jiang, Hubei Province, P. R. China in 2006).

Table 1. Substrates have been used for tempeh fermentation

Raw materials

Indonesian name References

(1) Legumes

Soybeans (yellow cultivars) Tempe kedele

(Glycine max) (kedelai)

Black gram

(Phaseolus mungo)

Broad bean, bakla, horse bean, field bean

(Vicia faba)

Chick pea

(Cicer arietinum)

Common bean or red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Cow pea

(Vigna unguiculata)

Horse (wild) tamarind T. lamtoro

(Leucaena ensiformis)

Jack bean T. koro pedang

(Canavalia ensiformis)

Lalab bean

(Lablab purpureus)

Lima bean T. koro

(Phaseolus lunatus)

Mungbean or green gram (Vigna radiata)

Pigeon pea or red gram T. gude

(Cajanus cajan)

Sesban bean

(Sesbania grandiflora)

Sweet lupine

(Lupinus albus)

Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) Yellow pea (Pisum sativum) Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) African yambean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa Hams)_

T. benguk T. kecipir

T. kecipir

(Nout et al., 1987c; Varzakas, 1998) (Jha & Verma, 1980)

(David & Jitendra, 1981; Ashenafi & Busse, 1991e; Shurtleff & Aoyagi, 2001)

(Ashenafi & Busse, 1991d; Ashenafi & Busse, 1991e; Paredeslopez et al., 1991; Reyes-Moreno et al., 2004)

(Paredes Lopez et al., 1990; Kalavi et al., 1996; Rodriguez-Burger et al., 1998)

(Ko Swan & Hesseltine, 1979)

(Shurtleff & Aoyagi, 2001)

(Shurtleff & Aoyagi, 2001)

(Ko Swan & Hesseltine, 1979)

(Shurtleff & Aoyagi, 2001)

(Nout & Rombouts, 1990)

(Nout & Rombouts, 1990)

(Chango et al., 1993; Fudiyansyah et al., 1995)

(Ko Swan & Hesseltine, 1979) (Homma et al., 1983)

(Nout & Rombouts, 1990) (Amadi et al., 1999) (Njoku et al., 1991)

Table 1. Continued

Raw materials

Indonesian name

References

(2) Cereals

Barley

(Hordeum vulgare) Wheat

(Triticum vulgare)

Oats

Quinoa

(3) Mixture of legumes with nonlegumes

Cassava fibres, soybean hulls and soybeans

Finger millet with various legumes

Sesame and soybean Rice and black beans Maize and soybean Sorghum and common bean Sunflower and soybeans

(4) Press cake (by-products)

Soybean residue from soy milk preparation or okara Coconut residue from local coconut-oil pressing (Cocos nucifera)

Groundnut presscake (Arachis hypogaea) Rapeseed meal

(5) Other plant materials

Rubber-seed

Apricot seeds Maize

T. menjes

T. gembus T. okara

T. bongkrek(Kelapa) T. enthoe T. tjenggereng

T. bungkil kacang

(Nout & Rombouts, 1990;

Hachmeister & Fung, 1993; Berg et al., 2001)

(Hesseltine & Wang, 1980;

Nout & Rombouts, 1990; Hachmeister & Fung, 1993) (Nowak, 1992)

(Matsuo, 2006)

(Nout & Rombouts, 1990)

(Shurtleff & Aoyagi, 2001)

(Nout & Kiers, 2005) (Nout & Kiers, 2005) (Vaidehi & Rathnamani, 1990)

(Ko Swan & Hesseltine, 1979; Matsuo, 1990)

(Ko Swan & Hesseltine, 1979)

(Shurtleff & Aoyagi, 2001)

(Tuncel et al, 1990)

(Cuevas-Rodriguez et al., 2004)

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