Within the Bacteria domain, there has been less consensus among taxonomists on how to organize bacteria into higher taxa (e.g., Kingdom, Sub-Kingdom, etc.).The Ninth Edition of Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (published in 1994) described three major categories of bacteria and one of archaeobacteria, and then further divided the bacteria categories into thirty different descriptive groups. According to the most current taxonomy (Garrity, et al., 2004), the Bacteria are now divided into twenty-four different phyla. Nearly all of the bacteria important in food fermentations, including lactic acid bacteria, belong to a single phylum, the firmicutes.Beyond the phyla, bacteria can be further divided into classes (and subclasses), orders (and sub-orders), families, and genera. Other details on their taxonomic positions will be described below.
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