foods, such as wine, their natural presence on grapes and equipment is sufficient to initiate a fermentation. Several different yeasts may be involved in "natural" or "spontaneous" wine fermentations, usually in a successive manner, where one species is dominant for a time, then gives way to others (Chapter 10). However, in most modern wine fermentations, as well as beer and bread fermentations, starter culture yeasts are used, selected on the basis of their physiological and biochemical properties. Yeasts are also important in spoilage of fermented (and non-fermented) foods. For example, one of the serious defects in sauerkraut is caused by the pink pigment-producing yeast Rhodotorula.
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