Following transport, the accumulated mono-saccharides are rapidly phosphorylated by hexokinases or glucokinases.As for the hexose transport systems, hexokinase enzymes (there are at least two, hexokinase PI and PII) have broad substrate specificity, being able to phos-phorylate glucose and fructose, as well as man-nose. The sugar phosphates then feed into the glycolytic or Embden-Meyerhoff (EM) pathway (Figure 8-8), with the eventual formation of pyruvate. Reducing equivalents, in the form of NADH, are formed from oxidized NAD by the glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.To maintain glycolytic metabolism during active growth, therefore, it is necessary to restore the NAD. As described in Chapter 2, lactic acid bacteria reduce pyruvate
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