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cially later in the finished beers. Dark beers (e.g., stouts, porters) use darker, more flavorful malt, whereas paler beers use lightly-colored, less roasted malt (Figure 9-4).

The flavors contributed by dark malts are often described as coffee- or chocolate-like, with toasty nutty notes. It would be a mistake, however, to conclude that darker beers, because of their stronger, more pronounced flavor and color, contain more ethanol than pale-colored beers. In fact, the darker the malt, the less amy-lolytic (or diastatic) activity is present. Ultimately, less sugar substrates are generated from starch, and less ethanol can theoretically be produced from the mashes (see below) made using dark malts. For this reason, stouts and other dark beers are inevitably made with a combination of dark, highly-roasted malt, to provide color and flavor, and lighter base malts, to supply enzymatic activity.

Although the malted and kilned barley contains starches, proteins, and the enzymes necessary for their degradation, these materials are not readily extracted from the intact malt kernel. Rather, to facilitate extraction, the malt must first be milled to break the kernel and expose the interior portion to the aqueous medium. Most breweries purchase whole or unground malt and do the milling themselves, according to their particular specifications.The kilned malt is most commonly milled in roller mills or hammer mills that can be set to deliver

Figure 9-4. Types of malt used in brewing. Shown (from left to right) are four types of malt, ranging from light to dark. These malts are used to make beers with similar colors. Figure courtesy of Rich Chapin (Empyrean Ales, Lincoln, Nebraska) and John Rupnow (University of Nebraska).

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