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Figure 9-1.

■ Beer making established in the Middle East

■ Brewers begins adding hops to beer Reinheitsgebot Beer Purity Law

Mayflower (with beer in the cargo) lands at Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts

Beer prices fixed in Massachusetts ("not more than one penny per quart")

van Leewenhoek, using a hand-made microscope, observes yeasts in beer

■ Schwann recognizes the genus, Saccharomyces Lager strain smuggled from Bavaria to Pilsen

■ Carlsberg Laboratory established in Denmark

Anheuser and Co. (later named Anheuser-Busch) introduces Budweiser Lager Beer

■ Pasteur publishes "Etudes sur la Biere"

Brewing strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae purified by Hansen from Carlsberg Brewery

18th Amendment (Prohibition) ratified by the U.S. Congress, most U.S. breweries close

Prohibition repealed

First canned beer (Krueger's Finest Beer and Krueger's Cream Ale, Richmond, Virginia)

Miller Lite introduced by Miller Brewing Co.

U.S. minimum drinking age raised to 21

■ Ice Beer introduced by Labatt Brewing Co.

■ Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome sequenced

Milestones in the history of beer.

In fact, English ale-style beer had been among the provisions carried by Pilgrims on the Mayflower, and there are reports, written in the actual travel logs, of the ship running low on beer and the worries that caused the passengers. ("We could not now take time for further search . . . our victuals being much spent, especially our beer. . .") During the latter half of the nineteenth century, the number of breweries in the United States increased three-fold, from 400 to 1,300. Most of these breweries produced German lager-style beer (see below), reflecting the huge immigrant population from Germany during that era (including the brewers themselves, e.g.,Adolphus Busch, Eberhard Anheuser, Adolph Coors, Frederick Miller, Joseph Schlitz).

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