Figure 11-1. Phylogenetic relationship of Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Gluconoacetobacter sp. based on 16S rRNA sequences. The tree was generated using the UPGMA clustering method. For most of the nodes, bootstrap values were 90% to 100%.

Table 11.1.

Vinegar Fermentation Species of Acetobacter and Gluconoacetobacter isolated from vinegar1.

Acetobacter aceti Acetobacter cerevisiae Acetobacter cibinongensis Acetobacter estunensis Acetobacter indonesiensis Acetobacter lovaniensis Acetobacter malorum Acetobacter orleanensis Acetobacter orientalis Acetobacter pasteurianus Acetobacter peroxydans Acetobacter pomorum Acetobacter tropicalis

Gluconoacetobacter xylinus2 Gluconoacetobacter hansenii2 Gluconoacetobacter europaeus2 Gluconoacetobacter intermedius2 Gluconoacetobacter liquefaciens2

'From Cleenwerck et al 2002;Garrity et al., 2004;and Lisdiyanti et al.,2000 2These species were previously classified as Acetobacter

Table 11.2. Physiological properties and characteristics of acetic acid bacteria.





Temperature optimum (°C)

Vinegar For Your Health

Vinegar For Your Health

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