L

Weissella

coccoid

hetero

+ -

+ -

+ -

D, L, DL

xAdapted from Axelsson, 2004

2Refers to the general properties of the genus; some exceptions may exist 3Species of Lactobacillus may be homofermentative,heterofermentative,or both 4This phenotype is variable, depending on the species 5Some species produce D-,L-, or a mixture of D- and L-lactic acid.

xAdapted from Axelsson, 2004

2Refers to the general properties of the genus; some exceptions may exist 3Species of Lactobacillus may be homofermentative,heterofermentative,or both 4This phenotype is variable, depending on the species 5Some species produce D-,L-, or a mixture of D- and L-lactic acid.

spoilage organisms in fermented meat products. Finally, species of Aerococcus, Vagococ-cus, and Weisella are not widely found in foods, and their overall significance in food is unclear. In the section to follow, the general properties, habitats, and practical considerations of the genera that are relevant to food fermentations will be described; descriptions of the important species will also be given. Information on the genetics of these bacteria, based on genome sequencing and functional geno-mics, will be presented later in this chapter.

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