It is during the next step, mashing, where the koji enzymes begin to hydrolyze proteins, poly-saccharides, and other substrates, and where microorganisms begin to use the products of these reactions. First, however, a high salt brine containing 20% to 25% sodium chloride is added to the solid material. The volume added may vary, depending on the manufacturer's specifications, but a ratio of about 1:1.2 to 1:1.5 (solid to brine) is normal. The high salt concentration in the mash (ranging from 16% to 19%) restricts growth of microorganisms to only those that are especially halo- or osmotolerant. The mash material, referred to as "moromi" or the "moromi mash,"is allowed to ferment in large (300,000 L) tanks for up to a year. Whereas wooden tanks were commonly used, these have largely been replaced first by concrete and then resin-coated

Soy beans Wheat

Soak 16 hours Roast

Steam/autoclave for 1 hour Crush

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