Figure 1. Formation of glycerol from glucose by Sac-charomyces cerevisiae. The glycolytic reactions from glucose to pyruvate are not shown. Once acetaldehyde is formed, end-products other than ethanol can be formed (acetoin, acetate, and 2,3-butanediol). Over-expression of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) results in glycerol production from dihydroxyacetone phosphate.
Navratil, M., Z. Domeny, E. sturdik, D. smogrovicova, and P. Gemeiner. 2002. Production of non-alcoholic beer using free and immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Biotechnol.Appl. Biochem. 35:133-140. Nevoigt, E., R. Pilger, E. Mast-Gerlach, U. Schmidt, S. Freihammer, M. Eschenbrenner, L. Garbe, and U. Stahl. 2002. Genetic engineering of brewing yeast to reduce the content of ethanol in beer. FEMS Yeast Res. 2:225-232.
Nevoigt, E., and U. Stahl. 1996. Reduced pyruvate decarboxylase and increased glyceraldehyde-3-phos-phate dehydrogenase [NAD+] levels enhance glycerol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 12:1331-1337.
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