Natural Remedies for Food Cravings

Sugar Crush Detox

This program was designed by Jane who had the same problems with sugar. Throughout her life, she was addicted to sugar and she thought she needs swift intervention before that habit develops into something else. She had an experience that helped her beat sugar addiction with the rest of the world. Her program helps you cut all the roots of majority of the health problems you usually gets. It attacks the weight loss problem at its source which is the biological craving for sugar. This product was specifically created to help people with sugar cravings beat this addiction and lead a healthy life. This program contains a couple of guides available in PDF, MP3 and video formats. The author used simple language in all the formats to ensure that everybody will be able to handle sugar addiction. If you are one of them and you want to get the full support required to quit sugar and lead a heathy life, then Sugar Crush Detox is for you. More here...

Sugar Crush Detox Summary


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Sucrose Metabolism

The sucrose content is less than the glucose and fructose content in most vegetables. The metabolism of sucrose in vegetable fermentation is usually incomplete in the final stage. For example, when beets containing 3.8 sucrose were fermented using Lb. plantarum for 12 days, the fermented beets still contained 2.8 residual sucrose. Using the same starter to ferment carrots for 35 days, 1.96 of the sucrose was reduced to 0.91 , but the glucose and fructose in the fermented carrots were exhausted at the same time (47). Sucrose does not seem to be an optimal fermentable sugar for lactic acid bacteria. Actually, only a few lactic acid bacteria possess the ability to ferment sucrose. A screen test report showed that among 14 strains of lactic acid bacteria, Lb. cellobiosus appeared to be the only species that metabolizes all of the sucrose in green bean juice. Under the same conditions, Lb. buchnerii, Lb.fermentum, and Leu mensenteroides ferment about half of the sucrose in green bean juice...

Carbohydrate dissimilation

The principal pathways used by yeast for the dissimilation of glucose are shown in Fig. 3.3. All yeasts predominantly utilise the Embden-Myerhoff glycolytic pathway for generation of ATP via substrate level phosphorylation. A proportion of the carbon flow devolving from glucose, or other sugars, is dissimilated via the hexose monophosphate shunt. This pathway is of importance for generation of NADPH for use in anabolic metabolism such as lipid synthesis. Bruinenberg et al. (1983) calculated that at least 2 of glucose metabolism had to be via the hexose monophosphate pathway where ammonium was the nitrogen source in order to satisfy anabolic requirements. A much greater proportion was required with certain carbon sources, such as pentoses. Since in the case of a brewery fermentation anabolic requirements are modest it seems likely that this pathway is of relatively small significance.

Lyophilized or frozen cultures

In general, bulk culture media are not that different from the fermentation media used by culture manufacturers for mass production of starter culture cells. They contain a basal medium consisting of a fermentable carbohydrate (usually lactose, but glucose or sucrose can also be used) and a nitrogen source (usually proteins derived from milk or whey). Culture media are also supplemented with additional sources of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. Yeast extract and corn steep liquor are excellent sources of many of these materials.

Nonmeat Ingredients

A variety of carbohydrates will provide the necessary substrate for production of lactic acid during fermentation, but the simple sugars, such as dextrose, are preferred. Dextrose is most commonly used because it is very readily utilized by all lactic acid bacteria. Final product pH will be directly related to the amount of dextrose in the product formulation, up to about 0.6 -0.7 . Most semidry sausages are formulated with 0.7 -1 dextrose. Greater amounts of dextrose (1.0 or more) will not greatly affect final product pH because the culture cannot grow in the presence of excess acid. Sucrose will also provide acid production and pH change very similar to dextrose and may be used in product formulation. A number of other carbohydrates such as maltose and lactose have been studied as fermentation substrates and will result in lactic acid production. However, most of these carbohydrates result in somewhat slower fermentation and higher final pH compared with dextrose (13). Figure 2...

Requirement for oxygen

In the context of brewing yeast and fermentation, the evidence suggests that apart from lipid synthesis oxygen is required for certain activities which may be induced by haem and are not repressed by glucose and other sugars. These activities are implicated in the partial development of mitochondrial function, which occurs in the repressing but aerobic phase of fermentation. Anaerobic yeast cells contain promitochondria (see Section which develop into fully functional organelles on exposure to oxygen and during derepression (Plattner et al., 1971). Since the enzymes for some essential anabolic reactions are located in the mitochondria it is assumed that in the absence of oxidative phosphorylation another mechanism must exist to generate energy for these reactions and to power transport of precursors and products between mitochondria and the cytosol.

Nonenzymatic browning

These are chemical reactions that lead to a brown colour when food is heated. The relevant chemistry is known as the Maillard reaction, which actually comprises a sequence of reactions that occurs when reducing sugars are heated with compounds that contain a free amino group, for example, amino acids, proteins and amines (Fig. 1.22, Table 1.7). In reflection of the complexity of the chemistry, there are many reaction intermediates and products. As well as colour, Maillard reaction products have an impact on flavour and may act as antioxidants. These antioxidants are mostly produced at higher pHs and when the ratio of amino acid to sugar is high. It must also be stressed that some of the Maillard reaction products can promote oxidative reactions. Other Maillard-type reactions occur between amino compounds and substances other than sugars that have a free carbonyl group. These include ascorbic acid and molecules produced during the oxidation of lipids. In the primary Maillard reaction,...

Microbial Defects Preservation and Food Safety

Appearance spoilage also occurs due to formation of undesirable pigments. The most common and best-studied example is the pink defect (or pink ring) that occurs around the exterior of Parmesan-type cheeses. The defect is worse after prolonged aging, and if the cheese is subsequently grated, a pink-to-brown color may occur throughout the grated cheese. Several factors contribute to the formation of the pink color, including oxygen and the presence of reducing sugars and free amino acids (i.e., reactant of the Maillard browning reaction). The starter culture, and the L. helveticus strains in particular, appears to be the main culprit, by virtue of its ability to produce oxidized pigments from the amino acid, tyrosine.

Microbial Production of Mannitol

Yun et al. (15) reported about 4-5 g of mannitol accumulation during fermentation of kimchi, a Korean pickled vegetable. Yun and Kim (16) isolated two different lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus sp. Y-107 and Leuconostoc sp. Y-002 during the fermentation of kimchi. These two strains utilized fructose and sucrose as substrates for mannitol formation. Under optimal conditions, the final mannitol concentration produced by Lactobacillus sp. Y-107 (at 35 C, initial pH 8.0, anaerobic, 100 g fructose L, 120 h) and Leuconostoc sp. Y-002 (at 35 C, initial pH 6.0, anaerobic, 50 g fructose L, 25 h) were 73 and 26 g L from 100 g L fructose with yields of 86 and 65 based on fructose consumed, respectively. The volumetric productivities of mannitol by both strains were less than 1.0 g L.h. Neither isolate produced other polyols such as glycerol and sorbitol as by-products. These two bacterial strains were not able to use high concentrations of sugars above 100 g L due to low osmotolerance of the...

Understanding the science of fermentation

To grow, yeast also needs amino acids, enzymes and minerals as well as the energy it extracts from sugar. These are needed to build new proteins (by creating bonds between amino acids) and carry out the many enzymatic reactions within the cell. A good Turbo sachet will contain all of these essentia growth ingredients collectively we call these yeast nutrients . If you have ever tried to ferment pure sugar with just yeast, you will know that you get very little alcohol, this is because yeast needs these other nutrients as well as sugar.

Heterofermentative pathway

Mig1 And Saccharomyces

Regulation of sugar metabolism in S. cere-visiae is similar, in principle, to that in lactic acid bacteria, but dramatically different with regard to the actual mechanisms and the extent to which other catabolic pathways are affected. In general, catabolite repression occurs when two or more fermentable sugars are present in the medium and the cell must decide the order in which these sugars are to be fermented. Since glucose is usually the preferred sugar, genes that encode for metabolism of other sugars are subject to catabolite repression. In lactic acid bacteria, catabolite repression is mediated via the phosphorylation state of HPr, in concert with CcpA (see above). Repression of catabolic genes for other sugars occurs at cre sites located near promoter regions. In S. cerevisiae, catabolite repression (more frequently referred to as glucose repression) assumes a much broader function. Glucose not only represses transcription of genes for sugar use, but also turns off genes coding...

Distribution And Taxonomy

The B. polymyxa group (renamed Paenibacillu3) is made up of facultative anaerobes that use sugars and poly-saccharides. B. macerans grows better in the absence of oxygen with an acidogenic type of fermentation that changes to an ethanolic fermentation at acidic pHs. B. po-lymyxa exhibits a butanediol type of fermentation. Members of the B. brevis group (renamed Brevi bacillus) are taxonomically heterologous. They are strict aerobes that generally do not produce acid from sugars. Some species, notably B. azotoformans, can grow anaerobically by using nitrate as an electron acceptor.

Carbohydrate Metabolism

In general, approximately 75 of the solids in plants are carbohydrates. Total carbohydrates generally consist of simple sugars, starches, pectic substances, lignin, and cellulose. Cellulose, pectic substances, and lignin occur in all plants as the principal structural components of the cell walls. These structural polysaccharides contribute greatly to the characteristic texture of plant foods. These structural polysaccharides are usually not fermentable. The most common fermentable carbohydrates in vegetables are glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch.

Examples of modified brewing strains

In the brewing industry, several traits have attracted the most research attention (Table 9-6). As noted earlier, brewing strains of S. cerevisiae generally do not hydrolyze dextrins and limit dextrins during the beer fermentation. These sugars remain in the beer, and although they may have a positive influence on body and mouth feel characteristics, they also contribute calories. Reducing these dextrins provides the basis for making low-calorie or light beers. Most brewers use commercially available enzymes, usually fungal glucoamylases, that are added to the wort during mashing. Another approach is to use yeast strains that express glucoamylase and that degrade these dextrins during the fermentation. Such strains have been isolated (e.g., S. cerevisiae var diastaticus), but, unfortunately, when used for brewing, the beer quality is poor, due, in part, to the production of phe

Sr 28 Kanrich Rice Cooker Manual

Miso Production Flow Chart

Taste, such as sweet miso, which uses more rice than soybean and less salt, and salty miso, which uses more soybean than rice and more salt. Based on their color, the miso can be classified as white miso (butter color), red miso (reddish brown color), and light-color miso (light yellowish golden color). If differentiated by their fermentation methods, miso can be classified into natural fermented miso, quick-ripened miso, and nutrient-enriched miso. When judged by product appearance, there is granular miso and chopped miso. Processed miso is the miso with added sugar, oil, or meat. a. Soybeans Among various soybeans, the yellow-type soybean that is rich in protein (40.3 ) and lipid (21 ) is suitable for miso processing. The proteins in soybean, rice, and wheat are rich in glutamic acid. The soybean for miso processing in Taiwan comes from the United States. It contains more than 20 lipid with a relatively high percentage of unsaturated fatty acid (more linoleic acid than linolenic...

Sour Soymilk And Soy Yogurt

Studies show that certain lactic acid bacteria, such as L. acidophilus, S. thermophilus, L. cellobiosis, L. plantarum, and L. lactis have been shown to grow well in soymilk, but they produce less acid in soymilk than in cow's milk (51,52). The major reason is that soymilk lacks monosaccharides and the disaccharide lactose. Instead, it contains such sugars as sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose, which are not readily digestible by many lactic starters due to lack of alpha-galactosidase in these organisms. Therefore, efforts have been made to increase acid production during lactic fermentation of soymilk. These include selection of culture strain, alteration of processing conditions during soymilk preparation, addition of fermentable sugars and or enrichment with dairy ingredients (52,53). Recently, Ara et al. (54) identified a new lactic bacterium strain, Streptococcus sp. S85-4, and found it had an effect on improving some unpleasant taste, such as astringency, associated with fermented...

The Fractionating Still

Fractionating Still

The purification of the crude beer produced from sugar and yeast is a 2-stage process, or even three in certain cases. The first stage is known as beer stripping and, as the name implies, is just a rapid and fairly rough method for separating most of the alcohol from the beer and leaving behind most of the water and the yeast. The volume of liquid after this first stage, a liquid known as high wine , is less than one-quarter of that with which we started. So if we started with 50 litres of beer we would end up with around 10 litres of high wine, and if the strength of the beer had been 10 the strength of the high wine would be closer to 50 .

Assimilation of wort nutrients

Brewing yeasts can utilise a wide variety of carbohydrates however, there is some variability between individual strains (see Section 4.2.3). Ale strains of S. cerevisiae are able to ferment glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, galactose, raffinose, malto-triose and occasionally trehalose. Lager strains of S. cerevisiae are distinguished by being able to also ferment the disaccharide melibiose. S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus can utilise dextrins. gravity of approximately 1.040 are shown in Fig. 3.2. Sucrose is utilised first and the resultant hydrolysis causes a transient increase in the concentration of fructose. Fructose and glucose are taken up more or less simultaneously, in the case of the fermentation illustrated, disappearing from the wort after about 24 hours. Completion of assimilation of glucose is followed by uptake of maltose, the major wort sugar. Maltotriose is utilised last after all assimilation of maltose. Higher polysaccharides, the dextrins, are not utilised by...

Formation of flavour compounds

Formation Sulphur Flavour Compounds

The significance of carbon flow from sugars and through pyruvate with respect to phenomena such as the Crabtree effect has been discussed previously (see Section 3.4.1). It is suggested that carbon flow from pyruvate to ethanol and acetyl-CoA is regulated only by the relative affinities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase and that ethanol formation represents overflow metabolism. Furthermore, acetyl-CoA can arise from acetaldehyde, via the intermediary of acetate, thereby bypassing pyruvate dehydrogenase.

Tempeh nutrition and safety

Makes tempeh more digestible, compared to soybeans, although the protein efficiency ratio (used as a measure of protein quality) of tem-peh is no higher than an equivalent amount of cooked soy beans. There is also a decrease in the amount of soy oligosaccharides (mainly stachyose and raffinose) during the conversion of soybeans into tempeh. These sugars, which are quite undesirable due to their ability to cause flatulence, are removed from soybeans not by fermentation, but rather by diffusion during the soaking and cooking steps.

Spoilage Of Bakery Products

Cakes typically have a much lower water activity than breads (aw 0.70-0.85 as compared to 0.92-0.97) and a much higher pH (6.0-8.0 as compared to 4.4-4.8 for bread started with sourdough and around 5.7 for wheat bread started with yeast alone) (13,16). This will of course, favor another group of fungi. Thus, the fungi associated with cakes, also termed the associated funga of cakes, will typically consist of Wallemia sebi, Eurotium spp., and Aspergillus spp. such as A. flavus and A. niger (5,17,18). The osmophilic yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii has also been isolated from spoiled cake with high sugar content. A predictive model for growth of this organism in bakery products has been developed by Membre and coworkers (19). They used a mixture of 30 glucose and 70 sucrose to simulate the mixtures commonly used in bakery goods and found that growth rate decreased linearly with increasing sugar content up to 950 g L, corresponding to aw 0.788. The optimal pH for growth was in the range...

Carbohydrates For Fermentation

Beer Carbohydrate Structure

Fortunately, all we really need to remember is that fructose and glucose are the fermentable simple sugars, and that yeast can readily move these molecules into the cells for processing into ethanol and carbon dioxide. The most common disaccharide is sucrose (common table sugar), which is composed of one glucose and one fructose molecule. In the process of joining together the two hexoses, one molecule of water is given up, so the molecular weight of sucrose is 342.3 - 5.2 lower than the combined molecular weight of fructose and glucose. Another common disaccharide is maltose, formed from two glucose molecules, and a common trisaccharide is maltotriose is a glucose trisaccharide. Here are pictures of these three fermentable sugars. Sucrose cannot be transported across cell walls, but some types of yeast and bacteria release enzymes into their environment that hydrolyze sucrose, adding back the missing water molecule, and producing one molecule of glucose and one of fructose. These are...

Yoghurt and Other Fermented Milk Products

The milk used originates from a range of animals, but is chiefly from the cow. To achieve the desired consistency, the milk is fortified with dried or condensed milk. Vitamin A (2000 IU per quart) and vitamin D (400 IU per quart) may also be added. Other additions sometimes used are lactose or whey to increase the content of non-fat solids sucrose, fructose or maltose as sweeteners flavourings, colour, and stabilisers.

Bottling Fermented Liquids

The two most important objects to be effected in bottling these fluids, will be to prevent them from passing into the acetic fermentation, and for them to open briskly. The fermentation spoken of can bo checked by the addition of from five to fifteen per cent, of alcohol. And to cause it to open briskly, add to each bottle one tea-spoonful of yeast, and a table-spoonful of honey, or a lump of white sugar of the size of a nutmeg. In filling the bottles, leave a space of one or two inches in the neck of the bottle, i. e. never fill the bottle to the cork. Sarsaparilla Beer, for Bottling. Infuse six ounces of bruised ginger, half a pound of bruised liquorice root, in live gallons of boiiing water until cold, strain through flannel, then dissolve in the liquor six pounds of brown sugar, then add half a pint of yeast and three ounces of cream of taitar in cold weather this should be kept near the fir , so as to excite brisk fermentation as soon as this subsides rack off the clear liquor,...

Sugar metabolism by bakers yeast

Because several sugars are ordinarily present in the dough (mainly glucose and maltose), and others may be added (sucrose, high fructose corn syrup), the yeast has a variety of metabolic substrates from which to choose. In addition, more maltose may be formed in the dough during the fermentation step via the successive action of endogenous a- and p-amylases present or added to the flour and that act on damaged starch granules.The order in which these different carbohydrates are fermented by S. cere-visiae is not random, but rather is based on a specific hierarchy, with glucose being the preferred sugar. For the most part, regulation is mediated by catabolite repression, acting at early steps in various catabolic pathways.Thus, in most strains of S. cerevisiae, glucose represses genes responsible for maltose transport and hydrolysis, as well as the invertase that hy-drolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose (Figure 8-7). Consequently, in a dough containing glucose, sucrose, and maltose,...

Fractional distillation

This is the most important step in the whole process of producing pure alcohol from sugar. And an essential step. Any description of alcoholic beverage production which does not include it is describing the production of an impure product, a type of whiskey or moonshine. It may be palatable if carefully prepared but it certainly will not be pure alcohol.

Syrup Of Almonds Or Orgeat

Take of sweet almonds, sixteen ounces bitter almonds, four ounces water, three pints refined sugar, six pounds. Having blanched the almonds or removed the husks by soaking them in warm water for a few moments, and rubbing them through the hands until the husk comes off having blanched the almonds, rub them in a mortar to a very fine paste, adding during the trituration, three fluid ounces of water and a pound of sugar. Mix the paste thoroughly with the remainder of the water, and then strain the mass through a common coarse linen cloth Add the remainder of the sugar to the strain'ed liquor, and dissolve it by the application of a gentle heat. Having become perfectly cool, bottle it, which must be well stopped and kept in a cool place half a pint of orange flower water greatly improves the above. This syrup will not keep long, as it is liable either to ferment or become rancid. This syrup is prepared in a cheap manner, for auctions, &c., by adding any convenient quantity of the...

Product characteristics

The final chemical composition of soy sauces depends on the specific type being produced (Table 12-2). In general, the greater the proportion of soy beans, relative to wheat, the greater will be the total nitrogen concentration. Conversely, products made using higher levels of wheat will contain less nitrogenous material, but more reducing sugars. Thus, shoyu tamari, which is produced mainly from soy beans, contains nearly four times more total nitrogen, but six times fewer reducing sug- ars, than shiro, a type of shoyu made from wheat with very few soy beans.The amount of nitrogenous material and reducing sugars, as reflected by the wheat-to-soy bean ratio, has a major influence on color. Soy sauce products containing greater levels of wheat are generally more light-colored and products containing more soy beans are dark-colored. Shiro, therefore, has a more tan appearance whereas tamari has a dark red-brown color.

Yeast is a living organism

So yeast is a living organism which uses sugar to make energy for growth. If there is no oxygen around yeast cannot extract all the energy from sugar and throws out ethanol as a waste product. To function, yeast also needs amino acids, enzymes and minerals which collectively we call nutrients. As well as throwing out ethanol as a waste product, yeast throws out another 1300 other compounds which we can call volatiles . These volatiles fall into chemical categories

Effervescing Saesaparilla

Take a keg similar to that mentioned under the head of Soda Water, and to every gallon of clean rain water, add one pint of the decoction of liquorice root, which is formed by boiling three ounces of the root for one hour in a pint of water, then proceed to add to every gallon of the water, white or brown sugar, one quarter of a pound oils of sassafras and aniseed, of each, ten drops oil of wintergreen, six drops brandy coloring or burnt sugar, one quarter of a pint infusion of ginger, one pint. This infusion is prepared by boiling for one hour, four ounces of bruised giuger to every pint of water, and then straining. Having added to the keg the water, the decoction of liquorice root, the sugar having first worked the oils up well in a small portion of the

Brewing Yeasts

The brewing industry has a long tradition for the use of starter cultures of brewing yeast based on single cell cultures. Worldwide, up to a thousand different brewing yeast cultures have been described. The brewing yeast strains vary in their technological properties, including aroma production, rate and degree of attenuation, flocculation, oxygen requirement, and reproduction (84). During brewing fermentation, maltose is the most dominant carbon source but sucrose, glucose, fructose, and maltotriose will also be present and utilized. Brewing yeast strains have been shown to vary in the ability to utilize maltose, and genotypic variations in the number of maltose transporter genes have been reported (85).

The Carbon Source

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae will ferment glucose, fructose and sucrose without any difficulties, as long as the minimal nutritional requirements of niacin (for NAD), inorganic phosphorus (for phosphate groups in 1, 3-diphosphoglyceric acid and ATP) and magnesium (catalyzes, with hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-diphosphate) are met. Table 2 lists some of the important biological molecules involved in catabolism and anabolism.tll 3J S. cerevisiae ferments galactose and maltose occasionally, but slowly inulin very poorly raffinose only to the extent of one

Yogurt Description

Other Optional ingredients. (a) Concentrated skim milk, nonfat dry milk, buttermilk, whey, lactose, lactalbumins, lactoglobulins, or whey modified by partial or complete removal of lactose and or minerals, to increase the nonfat-solids content of the food provided that the ratio of protein to total nonfat-solids of the food, and the protein efficiency ratio of all protein present, shall not be decreased as a result of adding such ingredients. (b) Nutritive carbohydrate sweetners. Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane invert sugar (in paste or syrup form) brown sugar refiner's syrup molasses (other than blackstrap) high-fructose corn syrup fructose fructose syrup maltose maltose syrup, dried maltose syrup malt extract, dried malt extract malt syrup, dried malt syrup honey maple sugar or any of the sweeteners listed in part 168 of this chapter, except table syrup. (c) Flavoring ingredients. (d) Color additives. (e) Stabilizers.


Sweeteners may be added to yogurt as part of the mix before fermentation and or through fruit preserved with sweeteners. Sucrose (sugar) is widely used in yogurt production. It provides a clean sweet taste that has no other taste or other odors. It complements flavors and contributes to desirable flavor blends (17). It can be used as a dry, granulated, free-flowing, crystalline form or as liquid syrup (67 sucrose). Inclusion of more than 5 sucrose in yogurt mix of 16-20 total solids may cause culture inhibition and lack of


The choice of starter cultures will affect product texture as well. Strains of acid producers have been developed that increase viscosity through the production of exopo-lysaccharides (14). These polysaccharide chains contain galactose, glucose, fructose, man-nose, and other sugars. Quantity and type depend on the bacteria strain and growth conditions (15,16). The exopolysaccharides interact with the protein matrix creating a firmer network and increasing water-binding capacity. The importance of this behavior was confirmed by Adapa and Schmidt (17), who found that low-fat sour cream, fermented by exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria, was less susceptible to syneresis and had a higher viscosity.

Lactate Acetate

Stankovic et al. (42) studied mannitol production from pentose sugars by Rhodotorula minuta (CCA 10-11-1). This was the only strain among 28 species of Candida, Bretanomyces, Decceromyces, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Schwanniomyces and Trichosporon that produced mannitol from D-pentose sugars. The yeast produced 16,4,5, and 5 mannitol from ribose, xylose, arabinose, and lyxose, respectively, when grown on these sugars (10 ) at 28 C and pH 4-7 for 14 days. In addition, the strain produced 3,11,5 and 6 D-arabinitol from these sugars, respectively. Song et al. (43) isolated over 1000 strains from various sources such as soil, seawater, honey, pollen and fermentation sludge and tested for their ability to produce mannitol. They identified a novel strain of Candida magnoliae (isolated from fermentation sludge) which produced 67 g L mannitol in 168 h from 150 g L fructose in batch flask culture (30 C, 220 rpm, 10 g yeast extract L). A fructose concentration higher than 200 g L reduced the...

Energy Sources

It is now recognized that the rate at which the carbon source is metabolized can often influence the formation of biomass or production of primary or secondary metabolites. Fast growth due to high concentrations of rapidly metabolized sugars is often associated with low productivity of secondary metabolites. This has been demonstrated for a number of processes (Table 4.4). At one time the problem was overcome by using the less readily metabolized sugars such as lactose (Johnson, 1952), but many processes now use semi-continuous or continuous feed of glucose or sucrose, discussed in Chapter 2, and later in this chapter (Table 4.15). Alternatively, carbon catabolite regulation might be overcome by genetic modification of the producer organism (Chapter 3).

The hydrometer

Read Hydrometer

(a) determine how much sugar there is in any natural juice or must (b) determine how much sugar to add to a juice to produce a wine of the desired The word hydrometer means water-measurer, but in this instance it would be more accurate to call it a saccharometer, or sugar measurer for the basic purpose of the instrument is to discover how much sugar there is in the liquor. Fermentation, as has been explained, involves the conversion by yeast of sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. If, therefore, we can discover how much sugar is used up during the whole course of a ferment, we can calculate exactly how much alcohol has been produced, how strong the wine is. When you have measured the specific gravity of your juice or liquor, you can tell from the table below firstly how much sugar per gallon it contains, and secondly, how much alcohol (in terms of the percentage of alcohol by volume) it is likely to produce, i.e. you can assess its potential alcoholic strength. This, remember, on...

Pure Corn Whiskey

Notorious for stretching their corn mash with sugar. Some recipes were less than 10 corn, the rest being sugar and water. While using sugar to produce a thin mash will produce as much alcohol and with much less effort, the flavour of the finished whiskey is very harsh, thin, and insipid. This prohibition type of corn-whiskey production became so prevalent that whiskey made from pure grain (i.e. no sugar) became a rare delicacy, and was attributed the name pure corn whiskey . Unfortunately, when the prohibition ended these sugar recipes persisted into the subsequent generations of corn-whiskey distilling so the traditional pure corn whiskey remained a scarce commodity.

Product Quality

Hamanatto is a dull brown, without luster, but has a strong umami odor. It has the following general composition 36-38 moisture, 26 protein, 12 fat, 6-7 reducing sugar, 12 ash (including 11 salt), and 2.1-2.9 crude fiber. Also, it has about 0.86 formaldehyde (amino group) nitrogen, 2.5-2.6 water-soluble nitrogen, 31.22-39.22 acidity I (related to umami taste of amino acids), 24.70-31.72 acidity II (related to buffering capacity of phosphoric acid), 34-35 extract (soluble solid components), 30-32 water-insolubles, a pH of 5.10-5.15, and 255 Kcal (8).

The brewing process

Obesumbacterium Proteus

The barley grain contains many other components that contribute to wort composition including sucrose, vitamins, minerals, polyphenols, nucleotides and lipids. Some components have the potential to produce problems during wort production. For example, malting barley endosperm contains approximately 4 (3-glucans. These must be degraded during malting, since barley (3-glucanases are heat labile and are inactivated during wort mashing. Failure to degrade (3-glucans results in high viscosity worts, which create problems in run-off. Barley varieties containing large quantities of (3-glucans are unsuitable for brewing.

Lactobacillus Casei

Lactobacillus Garicus

As noted above, the metabolic activities of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and other fungi are quite unlike those of bacteria and yeasts. The latter have a mostly fermentative metabolism, growing on simple sugars and producing just a few different end-products. In contrast, fungal metabolism is characterized by secretion of numerous proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes. These enzymatic end-products then serve as substrates for further metabolism.

Volumes of Vapors

In addition to being very useful in calculating quantities for reactions (e.g. calculating how much sugar it takes to produce a certain quantity of alcohol in a fermentation), mols are extremely useful to distillers, because the number of molecules, not their size or weight, determines the volume of a vapor. This means that equal mols of vapor occupy the same volume. To be precise, one mol of a compound (in vapor form) occupies 22.4 liters at 0 C and one atmosphere of pressure, conditions defined as Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP). Most of the vapors you'll be dealing with will be at atmospheric pressure, but not at 0 C. Fortunately, you can calculate the volume they occupy at other temperatures and pressures by using the Ideal Gas Law. This law states that the pressure times the volume of a vapor, divided by it's temperature in degrees Kelvin ( K + 273) is a constant. The equation is written PV nRT, where n is the number of mols and R is the Universal Gas Constant (8.3144...

Starch Metabolism

The starch content in most fermented vegetables is limited, hence the amylolytic ability of lactic acid bacteria is a characteristic with little demand. Although hydrolyzing starch to simple sugars is not important in traditional fermented vegetables, a few amylolytic lactic acid bacteria have been isolated from starchy raw materials. An investigation of Mexican pozol, a fermented maize dough, indicates that lactic acid bacteria accounted for 90-97 of the total active microflora. Strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified, including Leu mesenteroides, Lb. plantarum, Lb. confusus, L. lactis, and L. raffinolactis (49). From sour cassava starch fermentation, Lb. plantarum and Lb. manihotivorans were isolated. Lb. manihotivorans grows and converts starch into lactic acid more rapidly and efficiently than Lb. plantarum (50,51). Durinh fermentation, these amylolytic lactic acid bacteria degrade the starch first, and then the resulting sugars allow a secondary flora to...

Lowcalorie beer

Simple sugars are readily fermented, the complex carbohydrate fraction is not. Importantly, however, these carbohydrates are caloric, meaning they can be hydrolyzed to glucose during digestion, adsorbed into the blood stream, and either used as energy or stored as fat. Calories can be reduced by somehow reducing or removing the nonfermentable but caloric carbohydrates from beer. An alternate strategy to the use of enzymes replaces even more of the malt or starch adjuncts with adjuncts consisting of simple sugars. For example, if sucrose, fructose, or glucose syrups were used as adjuncts, at the expense of malt, the dextrin fractions would also be reduced. Both of these approaches, however, provide thin-bodied beers, since it is the dextrins that contribute mouth feel and body properties to beer.

Yeast Metabolism

Catabolite repression by glucose also affects the specific biochemical processes that occur during the fermentation. Although brewing strains of S. cerevisiae and S. pastorium can use all of the major sugars normally present in wort (glucose, fructose, maltose, and mal-totriose), metabolism of these sugars does not Sucrose, in contrast, is hydrolyzed by an extracellular invertase, yielding its component monosaccharides, glucose and fructose. The regulation of sugar metabolism becomes especially relevant during the beer fermentation when high glucose adjuncts are used. Under these circumstances, repression of maltose and maltotriose metabolism may exist throughout the entire fermentation, and the beer will be poorly attenuated.

Oxygen Requirements

Nutritional factors can alter the oxygen demand of the culture. Penicillium chrysogenum will utilize glucose more rapidly than lactose or sucrose, and it therefore has a higher specific oxygen uptake rate when glucose is the main carbon source (Johnson, 1946). Therefore, when there is the possibility of oxygen limitation due to fast metabolism, it may be overcome by reducing the initial concentration of key substrates in the medium and adding additional quantities of these substrates as a continuous or semi-continuous feed during the fermentation (see Tables 4.1. and 4.15 Chapters 2 and 9). It can also be overcome by changing the composition of the medium, incorporating higher carbohydrates (lactose, starch, etc.) and proteins which are not very rapidly metabolized and do not support such a large specific oxygen uptake rate.

Mixed Cultures

Anaerobic cellulose degradation is accomplished by a mixed culture of Clostridium cellulolytic bacteria that produce cellobiose, glucose, and cellodextrins fermentative bacteria that produce propionate, butyrate and other fermentation products from glucose and other intermediates syntrophic acetogenic bacteria that convert the fermentation products to acetate, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide homoacetogens that convert hydrogen and carbon dioxide to acetate and methanogens that produce methane from acetate, formate, and hydrogen (22). Leschine (22) reports that Clostridium papyrosolvens grow mutualistically in co-culture with a noncellulytic Klebsiella C. papyrosolvens hydrolyzes cellulose for the Klebsiella, whereas Klebsiella excretes vitamins required by the C. papyrosolvens. The soluble sugar products of cellulose hydrolysis provide substrates for many noncelluloytic commensal organisms that depend on the cellulolytic bacteria, but do not provide known compounds in return.


The ability of yeast cells to clump or flocculate, and the time at which flocculation occurs, are very important properties in beer manufacture. In most cases, flocculation should occur at the end of the fermentation, when all of the monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), disaccharides (sucrose and


Fermentation is carried out by facultative anaerobic homofermentative strains such as Lactobacillum plantarum and Pediococcus cereviseae. L plantarum produces acetic and lactic acids as well as ethanol and gas (CO2 and H2). The peppers are then immersed in 10 brine for 4 to 6 weeks, sometimes with 0.5 to 1 sucrose as well as hot pepper cell fluid containing carbohydrates, nitrogen compounds, and minerals among other things. The cell fluid from the peppers, however, tends to dilute the brine. For this reason, it is necessary to add 1 salt daily during the first week, and three times a week during the rest of the immersion time, in order to keep the desired brine concentration (18-20 ). The peppers must be completely covered by the brine at all times.


Fractional distillation This is the most important step in the whole process of producing pure alcohol from sugar. And an essential step. Any description of alcoholic beverage production which does not include it is describing the production of an impure product, a moonshine. It may be palatable but it will certainly not be pure alcohol.


Some microbial processes yield residues which are difficult or impossible to sell (Blaine, 1965). In these processes it may be possible, and worth while, to change to low residue raw materials such as refined sugars or other pure compounds as sources of soluble nutrients. In distilleries using cane molasses as a feedstock, evaporated spent wash has been used as a fuel for boilers (Sheenan and Greenfield, 1980). It has proved worth while to recover potassium salts from sugar-beet stillage. The market for the evaporated product must be considered within a range of 50 km of the evaporation plant (Lewicki, 1978). from sugar fermentations and distillation can be digested anaerobically and the methane generated used as an energy source (Essien and Pyle, 1983 Faust et al., 1983 Singh et al, 1983). Faust et al. (1983) also suggest the use of COz rich off gases in the food and beverage industries.


In the manufacture of syrups, the quality and quantity of the sugar employed are points of importance. Refined sugar should always be employed, as it often saves the necessity of clarification, and makes a clearer and better flavored syrup than the impure kinds. In relation to the quantity of sugar, if in too small proportion fermentation is apt to occur if too abundant crystallization will ensue. The proper proportion is about two parts to one of the liquid. A somewhat smaller quantity will answer, where an acid such as lemon juice, &c., is used. When carefully prepared with the best double refined sugar, syrups usually require no other clarification than to remove any scum which may rise to the surface upon standing, and to pour them off from any dregs which may subside but as the sugar employed is not always free from impurities, it would, as a general rule, be best to remove the scuin as it rises, during the heating process, and, if required, to strain them while hot through...

Sugar management

Controlled fermentation requires control of the initial sugar concentration. Assuming that fermentation is about 90 efficient, it takes about 17grams of sucrose per liter of solution to produce 1.0 alcohol by volume. Some fermentations will do better than this, and some worse, but it is a decent rule of thumb to use with pure table sugar. Glucose or Fructose require 17.9 grams per liter per percent alcohol. This is explained in Appendix 2. The specific gravity of a solution is the ratio of its density to that of pure water. A specific gravity of 1.050, for example is 5 denser than pure water. The Plato, Brix and Ballings scales all relate the density of the solution to the sucrose by weight. Sucrose (common table sugar) was chosen because it is the sugar that dissolves in water to produce the greatest density. Appendix 3 includes a table that shows the relationship between sugar content and several common hydrometer scales. Then, calculate the weight of sugar needed based on the g l...

Irish Whiskey

The spirit colored with it, presents to the naked eye, minute particles of impurities which give to the spirit a dull, heavy, cloudy appearance. These impurities will have to be removed by passing the coloring through theiisand filterer. To obviate these difficulties, the manufacturer should prepare the coloring either from refined or fair brown sugar the coloring, if made from refined sugar, is usually prepared for coloring bottled liquors.

Sulfur Compounds

The other major group of sulfur compounds found in wine are sulfur dioxide (SO2) and related aqueous forms that exist as sulfite ions. These substances are produced naturally by yeast, and are invariably present in wine, albeit at concentrations usually less than 50 mg L. However, sulfur dioxide and bisulfite salts are now commonly added to must due to their strong antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antibrowning properties. It is important to recognize that these activities occur only when the SO2 is in its free, un-bound form.When bound or fixed with other wine compounds, such as acetaldehyde, reducing sugars, and sugar acids, SO2 activity is diminished. How SO2 specifically functions in wine and its important role in wine making will be further discussed later.


Cocoa pods (Fig. 16.1) develop on the trunks and branches of the tree and are harvested throughout the year. They comprise an embryo and shell. There are between 35 and 45 seeds (or beans or cotyledons) encased in a mucilaginous pulp known as the endocarp and composed of sugars (mainly sucrose), pectins, polysaccharides, proteins, organic acids and salts (Table 16.1). The plant contains alkaloids, notably the methylxanthines theobromine (1-2 of the dry weight) and caffeine (0-2 ) (Fig. 16.2) The former affords bitterness to cocoa. The embryo of the seed comprises two folded cotyledons that are covered with a rudimentary endosperm. It is these cotyledons that are used for making cocoa and chocolate (Fig. 16.3). Sucrose Invertase hydrolyses sucrose to the reducing sugars, glucose and fructose. These will later combine with peptides and amino acids. During roasting of the beans (discussed later), these compounds enter into the Maillard reaction, and the resultant flavoursome substances...


Sucrose is obtained from sugar cane and sugar beet. It is commonly used in fermentation media in a very impure form as beet or cane molasses (Table 4.6), which are the residues left after crystallization of sugar solutions in sugar refining. Molasses is used in the production of high-volume low-value products such as ethanol, SCP, organic and amino acids and some microbial gums. In 1980, 300,000 tons of cane molasses were used for amino acid production in Japan (Minoda, 1986). Molasses or sucrose also may be used for production of higher value low-bulk products such as antibiotics, speciality enzymes, vaccines and fine chemi- Sucrose 3-5 Reducing sugars 3-4 Other sugars 2 Corn steep liquor (Table 4.7) is a by-product after starch extraction from maize. Although primarily used as a nitrogen source, it does contain lactic acid, small amounts of reducing sugars and complex polysaccharides. Certain other materials of plant origin, usually included as nitrogen sources, such as soyabean...


Another reason, perhaps, why tempeh has attracted interest in the United States relates to its versatile applications and organoleptic properties. In its raw state, tempeh has a bland, mushroom-like flavor. However, cooking transforms this plain-tasting material into a pleasant, nutty, flavorful product. If one can get past the fact that tempeh consists entirely of moldy beans, its flavor, especially when it is sauteed or fried, resembles that of cooked or roasted meat (sort of). After all, tempeh and muscle protein (i.e., meat) both derive much of their flavor from the Maillard reaction products that result when amino acids and reducing sugars are heated at high temperature.The lipid component of soy beans may also serve as a precursor for meaty flavor and aroma development. Finally, the development of a tem-

Tempeh Microbiology

The surface of raw soy beans contains an assortment of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, including Lactobacillus casei and other lactic acid bacteria enterococci, staphy-lococci streptococci bacilli Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and other coliforms.Yeasts, such as Pichia, Saccharomyces, and Candida, may also be present. During the soaking step, sucrose, stachyose, and raffinose diffuse out of the beans and into the water.Their subsequent hydrolysis by invertases and glucosidases releases glucose and fructose, which can then be used to support growth of the resident microflora. Consequently, at the end of the soaking period (twenty to twenty-four hours at 20 C),the total microflora may reach levels of 109 cfu per ml or higher. Most of the organisms isolated after soaking are lactobacilli, enterococci, and streptococci. However, the specific species that predominate appears to depend on the temperature and the pH of the soak water (i.e., in those applications where lactic or acetic...


Aside from those bacteria that produce acetic acid as an overflow or side reaction from sugar metabolism (e.g., lactic acid bacteria), there are several genera of bacteria that produce acetic acid as the primary metabolic end product. It is important, however, to distinguish between those that produce acetic acid from one-carbon precursors and those that produce acetic acid via oxidation of ethanol. The former group are referred to as acetogens and include species of Clostridium, Eubac- Although all species of Acetobacter and Gluconobacter produce acetic acid from ethanol, they differ, metabolically, in several respects (Table 11-2). First, whereas Acetobac-ter can, under certain conditions, completely oxidize ethanol to CO2, metabolism of ethanol by Gluconobacter stops at acetic acid (discussed below). In contrast, oxidative metabolism of glucose and other sugars is much greater in Gluconobacter compared to Acetobacter, which produces little acid from sugars. Finally, these organisms...

Manufacture of sake

Sake is different from other wine fermentations in at least two main respects. First, as noted above, fermentable sugars are absent in rice, the sake substrate. Thus, it is necessary to provide exogenous enzymes, in the form of a koji, that can hydrolyze starch to simple sugars that the yeasts can ferment. This part of the sake manufacturing process, therefore, shares similarity with the beer-brewing process, in which malt is used to convert the starch (in barley) to simple sugars. The other major difference that distinguishes sake production from wine is that the saccharification step just described and the actual ethanolic fermentation step occur simultaneously or in parallel. In other words, nearly as soon as sugars are made available by action of koji enzymes, they are quickly fermented by sake yeasts.The implications of these parallel processes will be discussed below.


(1) A spirit drink produced exclusively by alcoholic fermentation and distillation, either from molasses or syrup produced in the manufacture of cane sugar or from sugar cane juice itself, and distilled at less than 96 vol., so that the distillate has the discernible specific organoleptic characteristics of rum

Culture metabolism

S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bul-garicus both make lactic acid during the yogurt fermentation.They are homofermentative, meaning lactic acid is the primary end-product from sugar metabolism, and both ferment lactose in a similar manner. Moreover, the specific means by which lactose metabolism occurs in these bacteria not only dictate product formation, but also have an important impact on the health-promoting activity these bacteria provide (discussed later).


Would be the last sugar fermented in this mixture. Depending on how the cells had previously been grown, however, it is possible that invertase had already been induced, resulting in rapid formation of sucrose hydrolysis products. Finally, there exist strains of S. cerevisiae whose expression of cata-bolic genes is constitutive, meaning that they are not subject to catabolite repression. Such strains may be particularly useful, since constitutive expression of genes coding for maltose permease and maltase means that these strains will ferment maltose even in the presence of glucose. In most doughs, however,


MANY old recipes advocate far too much sugar, with the result that the winemaker is disappointed when the yeast fails to use most of it up, and be is left with a syrupy, almost undrinkable concoction. Invert sugar, too, is now available to winemakers. When yeast sets to work upon household sugar, or sucrose, it first splits it into its two main components, glucose and fructose, or inverts it. In invert sugar this has already been accomplished chemically, so that the yeast can start immediately to use the glucose (the principal sugar found in grapes). Thus by using invert one may well obtain improved fermentation, improved to the extent that the yeast does not itself have to effect the inversion. Invert will ferment more quickly than household sugar, and is widely used in the brewing industry. If you wish to use invert sugar, use 1 H lb. in place of every 1 lb. of household sugar specified in the recipes. It is far better to make your wine dry, and then sweeten It to your taste, than...


3 lb. elderberries 1 gallon water 3 lb. white sugar Yeast 2 lb. white sugar 7 pints water Respora Sherry yeast If using a hydrometer, test the juice and determine how much sugar has to be added dissolve it in the juice, and pour the juice into your fermenting vessel. (Many winemakers prefer to add only half the sugar at this stage and the remainder two or three days later.) If you are not using a hydrometer, of course, add your initial 8 oz. of sugar, and thereafter keep a close eye on your ferment, for it is likely to require further sugar almost every day, although the ferment and sugar consumption will be slower in the latter stages than in the early one. If using a hydrometer, press a few of the grapes to determine the specific gravity of the juice and how much sugar to add. (If not using a hydrometer, it is best to add at least 1 H lb.) Strictly speaking, only natural sugar of the fruit should be employed and no sugar should be added. both vessels in a warm place (65-70 degrees...

Oils And Fats

Bader et al. (1984) discussed factors favouring the use of oils instead of carbohydrates. A typical oil contains approximately 2.4 times the energy of glucose on a per weight basis. Oils also have a volume advantage as it would take 1.24 dm3 of soya bean oil to add 10 kcal of energy to a fermenter, whereas it would take 5 dm3 of glucose or sucrose assuming that they are being added as 50 w w solutions. Ideally, in any fermentation process, the maximum working capacity of a vessel should be used. Oil based fed-batch fermentations permit this procedure to operate more successfully than those using carbohydrate feeds where a larger spare capacity must be catered for to allow for responses to a sudden reduction in the residual nutrient level (Stowell, 1987). Oils also have antifoam properties

Sweet wines

Sweet wines are simply those that contain un-fermented sugar (either fructose, glucose, or sucrose).There are several ways to produce a sweet wine. The easiest (and least expensive) way is to simply add sugar (up to 2 to 4 ) or sucrose syrup to a dry wine. This results in a


Molasses and brown sugar should not be used in the formation of liquors that are to be colored. Effervescing liquors that have a dull, heavy appearance, after being colored, will be rendered quite transparent by passing them through a niter, composed of alternate layers of charcoal and sand.


There are many manufacturers of Turbos and frankly, there is only one who is that excellent. Our policy is to sell top quality worldwide. All Turbos we sell are variations from this very excellent producer. For example, the nutrient of a certain Turbo contains 22 different ingredients. Some competitors only contains one ingredient, ammonium phosphate. Another example some competitors yeast ferment much faster when you use a mono sugar like grape sugar (glucose) or fruit sugar (fructose). Turbos we sell ferments sucrose (ordinary household sugar, sucrose) with the same speed. All those Turbos are also designed to make as few volatiles as possible. To make a good Turbo you need a great deal of know how. To make a bad Turbo you need only bakers yeast and ammonium phosphate. You can be sure that I am serious about this. The first widely sold Turbo here, and probably in the whole world, was my product, SUPERJASTEN. I have not sold this since 1996 because it was no longer, in my honest...


This study demonstrates that both genetic engineering and culture adaptation in the FBB can be used to develop mutant strains of C. tyrobutyricum and improve die process economics for butyrate fermentation. The adapted culture from the FBB is physiologically different from the original culture used to seed the bioreactor. This important finding has never been reported in conventional fermentation systems. The high productivity and high product concentration obtained in the FBB are either comparable or better than those reported in the literature. The manipulation of acid-forming pathways by gene inactivation and overexpression proved to be feasible for obtaining metabolically advantageous mutants for butyrate production from sugars. The fermentation kinetic studies of these mutants also provided valuable information about gene function in cellular metabolism, which can guide future effort to engineer novel super-producing strains of C. tyrobutyricum for industrial applications. The...


The mash, as described so far, contains only the malt and brewing water. The malt, as stated above, supplies the enzymes and the enzyme substrates. Many of the European beers, as well as the micro-brewed beers produced in the United States, are made using 100 malt mashes. However, the most widely-consumed beers in the United States, those made by the large breweries, contain an additional source of starch-containing material in the form of corn, rice flakes, or grits. These materials are called adjuncts, and can account for as much as 60 of the total mash solids.Adjunct syrups, which contain sucrose, glucose, or hydrolyzed starch, are also commonly used. Adjuncts are allowed

Turbo Yeast

To achieve a faster fermentation Turbo yeast is used. It is available in a number of brands, e.g., Turbojast, Alcotech, Turbo 3 and Norsk Turbo. Fermentation will be completed in 2-3 days, depending on how much sugar is used and the temperature, giving an alcohol content of 11-14 . To obtain a stronger mash Gold Turbo 8 kg is one of the best. It does what is claimed of it and gives a mash containing 16 alcohol, in optimum cases 18 . This means 50 more spirit from the apparatus with the same quantity of mash.

Liquorice Root

Facturer. other than in the manufacture of sarsaparilla syrup that is used in soda water, which may be given thus liquorice root, bruised, two ounces oil of sassafras, oil of anise, 8 drops oil of wintergreen, 5 drops 6 lbs. brown sugar water, 3 quarts. Boil the liquorice two hours, then mix the sugar, water., and liquorice water, and boil as for other syrups, then work the oils in the syrup when cool.

Furanone Formation

4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2)-furanone (HDMF) and 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2)-fura-none (HMMF) are derived from a Maillard reaction. During thermal treatment of carbohydrates, several a-dicarbonyls are formed (65). The condensation of the carbonyl group of the reducing sugar with the amino compound gives a glycosylamine. Subsequently, this rearranges and dehydrates, via deoxyosone, to various sugar dehydration and degradation products such as furfural and furanone derivatives. When a ketose is involved instead of an aldose sugar, then a ketosylamine is formed that undergoes a Heyns rearrangement to form a 2-amino-2-deoxyaldose (Heyns product). At temperature above 100 C, 1-amino-1-deoxy-2-ketoses undergo 2,3-enolization to give a 1-amino-2,3-enediol from which an amine is eliminated to form a methyl-2,3-dicarbonyl intermediate (66). 1,2-Enolization of the Amadori product will result, after dehydration and deamination, in the formation of a 3-deoxyosone. The 3-deoxyosone is readily converted...

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