Miso

There are various fermented soybean pastes in Asia, including miso in Japan, Chiang in China, Jiang in Korea, Tauco in Indonesia, Taochieo in Thailand and Taosi in the Philippines. Miso, nowadays made commercially, is for the most part used as the base for soups, with the remainder being employed in the seasoning of other foods. There are four basic steps, two of which are concurrent, namely the preparation of koji and of soybeans. Koji is made on polished rice and represents a source of...

Wine

The Merriam-Webster's Dictionary defines wine as the usually fermented juice of a plant product (as a fruit) used as a beverage. While in rural communities in countries such as Great Britain wines have from time immemorial been produced from all manner of plant materials (and not only fruits), I restrict discussion in the present chapter to the products of commercial entities furnishing wines based on the grape (Fig. 3.1). The importance of sound viticulture as a precursor to wines of...

Vinegar

Vinegar is made either by the microbial fermentation of alcohol or by the dilution of acetic acid. It has a pedigree probably spanning more than 10 000 years and, in that time, has been extensively used as food, medicine and for rituals. Wine being the first liquid to have spontaneously soured, we have the derivation of vinegar Vin aigre - in French, sour wine. Hippocrates understood the medicinal value of vinegar and such uses continued right through the Middle Ages and beyond as an internal...

Info

Fig. 2.28 The anabolic route to higher alcohols in yeast. Note Fig. 2.29 shows how acetolactate is derived from pyruvate. Even more important than FAN levels, though, is the yeast strain, with ale strains producing more of these compounds than lager strains. Fermentations at higher temperatures increase higher alcohol production. Conditions favouring increased yeast growth (e.g. excessive aeration or oxygenation) promote higher alcohol formation, but this can be countered by application of a...

Sake

Sake probably emerged from China in the seventh century, although it is claimed that the first rice wine may have been brewed for the emperor in the third century. The first sake was called 'chewing in the mouth sake' on account of its mode of production. Rice was chewed alongside chestnuts or millet and the wad spit into water in a wooden tub where it was allowed to brew for several days. We now know, of course, that the salivary amylase was degrading starch to fermentable sugars that were...

Buffalo Brewing Polish Liqueur

Vodka comprises pure unaged spirit distilled from alcoholic matrices of various origins and usually filtered through charcoal. It is defined in the EU as a spirit drink produced by either rectifying ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin or filtering it through activated charcoal The EU defined the characteristics of neutral alcohol ('Ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin for use in blending alcoholic beverages') according to Council RegulationNo. 1576 89 (Table 7.1). Materials added in the...

Balsamic

At the other end of the quality spectrum is balsamic vinegar. It has been produced for hundreds of years in Northern Italy, notably the provinces of Modina and Reggio Emilia. The base material is grape must, preferably Trebbiano. Alcoholic fermentation is effected about 24 h after pressing, with must gently boiled until it is reduced to a third or a half by volume. This leads to a high sugar concentration of about 30 . The alcoholic fermentation and the acetification occur together very slowly....

Types of sake

Jummai-shu is made from rice alone (reduced to 70 of its original size). Honjozo-shu contains less than 120 L of raw alcohol per ton of white rice Table 8.1 Contributors to the flavour of sake. (reduced to 70 of its original size) and the alcohol must be added to the moromi. No glucose is allowed. Ginjo-shu is a special, high-quality variant of Jummai-shu, with the rice reduced to 60 of its original size, no alcohol addition, and very low temperature (10 C) fermentation. Genshu is undiluted...

Cider

Cider is an alcoholic drink produced by fermenting extracts of apples, though in the United States the term generally describes a non-alcoholic product, with the alcoholic version being termed 'hard cider' and produced in such apple-growing states as New England and upstate New York. Much of the latter is actually produced for direct conversion into vinegar. In this chapter, I focus on cider making in the United Kingdom, but it is important to stress that cider is also important in France...

Bread

Despite the seeming ludicrousness of certain well-publicised latter-day low carbohydrate diets, bread remains a staple food for numerous people worldwide, representing perhaps as much as 80 of the dietary intake in some societies. Like beer, its origins can be traced to the gruel obtained from mixing ground grain (notably barley in the earliest times) with water or milk. The blend was then subjected to air-drying or was baked either on hot stones or by being put into hot ashes, such ovens being...

Cocoa

The starting material for cocoa and chocolate is the seed of Theobroma cacao which was first cultivated by the Aztec and Mayan civilisations more than 2500 years ago and imported by the Spanish in 1528. Processing is in the tropics where the cocoa is grown, with ensuing manufacturing in the countries where the end products are consumed. There are two major types of T. cacao. Criollo affords cocoas that have a refined flavour but low yield. Forastero affords much higher yields and is therefore...

Soy sauce

The history of soy sauce in Japan can be traced back some 3000 years it probably arrived in Japan from China with the introduction of Buddhism. Although there is an acid-based chemical method for making the product, we focus only at the fermentative route to soy sauce. Five types of soy sauces are recognised by the Japanese government (Table 14.2). The major types of soy sauce are Koikuchi, which accounts for some 90 of the total market and is a multi-purpose seasoning with a strong aroma and a...

Miscellaneous Fermentation Products

Skim or full fat milk, sterilised, incubated with Lactobacillus acidophilus or Bifidobacterium bifidum (< 48 h). Therapeutic value lowering pH of intestine Bitter tasting, high alcohol wine, often red, drunk before meals. Red wine or white wine strengthened with added grape spirit or alcohol, flavourings. For example, Campari from Italy red and flavoured with quinine. Dubonnet - France red or white, flavoured with quinine and herbs Pork sides cured - curing salts containing some or all of...

Environmental impacts

A range of physical, chemical and physicochemical parameters impact the growth of micro-organisms, of which we may consider temperature, pH, water activity, oxygen, radiation, pressure and 'static' agents. The rate of a chemical reaction was shown by Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) to increase two- to three-fold for every 10 C rise in temperature. However, cellular macromolecules, especially the enzymes, are prone to denaturation by heat, and this accordingly limits the temperatures that can be...

Hama Natto Food Procedures

Natto is a Japanese product based on fermented whole soybeans. Generally the product is dark with a pungent and harsh character. It is eaten with boiled rice, as a seasoning or as a table condiment in the way of mustard. There are three types of natto in Japan. Itohiki-natto from Eastern Japan is produced by soaking washed soybean overnight to double its weight, steaming for 15 min and inoculating with Bacillus natto, which is a variant of Bacillus subtilis. Fermentation is allowed to proceed...

Yoghurt and Other Fermented Milk Products

Like cheese, yoghurt originated as a vehicle to preserve the nutrient value of milk. Through time, the product has evolved to a foodstuff richly diverse in flavour, texture and functional properties. Thus, the formulations may now incorporate components such as fruits, grains and nuts, as well as having a range of textures. Yoghurt is only one of a series of fermented dairy products (Table 11.1). Sour cream comprises cream (> 18 milk fat) fermented with specific lactic cultures, perhaps with...

Curd handling

The curd is separated from whey by settling and drainage through some form of perforated system. It is important to have efficient fusion of the curd particles and this is impacted by pH and by the physical properties of the curd. Fusion starts to occur when the pH has reached 5.8, and if the whey is removed before this, the cheese will feature openings. If fusion takes place in the presence of whey, the cheese will have a dense body. Sodium chloride may be introduced into the curd after the...

Mycoprotein

Although less high profile than it was 25-30 years ago, there is still interest in the cultivation of microbes specifically as foodstuffs, rather than as agents in the production of other products, which is how we have encountered them in this book. The term 'single cell protein' was coined to describe these products, which were based on diverse bacteria and yeasts, growing on a range of carbon sources (Table 17.1). Only one product has survived in substantial quantity to this day, Quorn . It...

The Science Underpinning Food Fermentations

Use the word 'biotechnology' nowadays and the vast majority of people will register an image of genetic alteration of organisms in the pursuit of new applications and products, many of them pharmaceutically relevant. Even the Merriam-Webster's Dictionary tells me that biotechnology is 'biological science when applied especially in genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology'. Fortunately, the Oxford English Dictionary gives a rather more accurate definition as 'the branch of technology...

Problems with cider

Cider sickness, caused by infection through Zymomonas anaerobia is now very uncommon, as it is countered by the lower pHs lt 3.5 and reduced tendency to have residual sugar in the product. Symptoms include an aroma of banana skins and a white turbidity due to the acetaldehyde produced reacting with polyphenols to form insoluble complexes. Mousiness in cider is due to isomers of 2-acetyl or ethyl tetrahydropyridine Fig. 5.6 produced by lactic acid bacteria or Brettanomyces under aerobic...

Lactic acid bacteria

Throughout the centuries it has been the practice in various fermentation-based processes to add back a proportion of the previously produced food to the new batch, so-called back slopping. What of course this did was to seed the fermentation with the preferred micro-organism, and for many foodstuffs this organism is a lactic acid bacterium. Such bacteria are only weakly proteolytic and lipolytic, which means that they are quite 'mild' with respect to their tendency to produce pungent flavours....

Sake brewing

The brewing of sake retains much ritual and tradition. The Master Brewers the toji go about their tasks in the kura, brewing in the coldest months of the year. The toji are an elite breed of artisan that can trace their origins back to the Edo period. They develop their knowledge and stature over many years of practical experience, starting with the most menial of tasks and enduring long hours of heavy manual labour. The brewers lived in kura for all the 100 days of the brewing season in past...

Fortified Wines

Food, Fermentation and Micro-organisms Charles W. Bamforth Copyright 2005 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd Fortified wines are those in which fermented, partially fermented or unfermented grape must is enriched with wine-derived spirit. According to the European Union EU regulations, such liquor wines are those with an acquired alcohol content of 15-22 by volume and a total alcohol content of at least 17.5 by volume. The chief fortified wines are sherry originating in Spain, notably Jerez de la...

Bibliography

London Chapman amp Hall. Atkinson, B. amp Mavituna, F. 1991 Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology Handbook, 2nd edn. Basingstoke Macmillan. Berry, D.R., ed. 1988 Physiology of Industrial Fungi. Oxford Blackwell. Branen, A.L. amp Davidson, P.M., eds 1983 Antimicrobials in Foods. New York Marcel Dekker. Brown, C.M., Campbell, I. amp Priest, F.G. 1987 Introduction to Biotechnology. Oxford Blackwell Publishing. Caldwell, D.R. 1995 Microbial Physiology and...

Whey expulsion

Whey is expelled rapidly from the curd after it has been cut into small pieces. This will be further accelerated by an increase in temperature when the mix is agitated. Lactic acid bacteria trapped in the curd metabolise lactose to lactic acid and this diffuses from the curd. The rate at which this occurs, as well as the rate at which moisture and lactose are removed, have substantial impact on the nature of the finished cheese. Whey expulsion also has an impact on the release of calcium...

Inr

Whereas American bourbon and rye whiskies are put into new oak casks, Scotch, Irish and Canadian whiskies are filled into casks that have previously been employed for Bourbon or for sherry. For the most part they comprise 50 L butts. Whisky casks are either of American white oak which are used for Fino and Amontillado Sherries or Spanish Oak used for Oloroso Sherry . The bourbon casks used for Scotch whiskies must be filled at least once with bourbon and the...

Fermentation

Some blending of juices may occur prior to fermentation and additions made. In particular, there may be a blending with sugars or AJC, to arrive at a specific gravity of 1.08-1.1. The FAN level may be raised to 100 mgL-1 by the addition of ammonium sulphate or ammonium phosphate. Thiamine may be added, perhaps at 0.2 ppm, but this must be separate from the addition of sulphite as the latter will destroy it. Other B vitamins that are required are pantothenate 2.5 ppm , pyridoxine 1 ppm and...

Cheese

Cheese making can be traced back some 8000-9000 years to origins in the Fertile Crescent, that is, latter day Iraq. Just as beer arose from the adventitious contamination of moist sprouted grain, so did cheese develop as a consequence of the accidental souring of milk by lactic acid bacteria, with the attendant clotting to produce curd. Cheese, whey the liquid that separates from the curd and fermented milks all comprise milk rendered as long life forms. The first enzyme employed to curdle milk...

Chemical synthesis of vinegar

Acetic acid can be produced by the catalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde, which in turn is produced by the catalytic hydration of acetylene or by the catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol. The undesirable formic acid and formaldehyde are eliminated by distillation. The acetic acid is purified before diluting to 60-80 by volume to obtain the vinegar essence. This in turn is diluted to 4-5 in the generation of food grade 'vinegar'. Sugar, salt and colour may be added. In the United Kingdom, such a...

Vinegar making processes

Vinegar Generator

The slow Orleans process is employed for the manufacture of high-quality vinegars Fig. 9.1 . The starting liquor is held in large casks containing wood shavings or grape stalks that represent a large surface area on which the microbes can thrive. Acetification commences and after 8 days, the liquid is withdrawn and transferred to barrels so as to become half to two-thirds full. Fresh vinegar stock is introduced into the main cask to replace that which has been removed. Acidity reaches a maximum...

Gin

The word gin is a corruption of genievre, the French word for juniper. Distilled gin is produced by distilling neutral alcohol and water in the presence of botanicals, of which juniper, coriander and angelica are key. The product is diluted further with alcohol and finally brought to its final strength with water. In the EU, a drink can be called gin if it is produced by addition to ethanol of agricultural origin natural or nature-identical flavourants such that the taste is predominantly one...

Rum

Rum primarily originated in the Caribbean, although the first references to liqueurs obtained from sugar cane are from India. Sugar cane was introduced to the Caribbean by Christopher Columbus in 1493. The chief producing countries are Barbados and Santo Domingo. Nowadays the coastal planes of Guyana Demerara are rich in estates producing sugar cane Saccharum officinarum . At harvest time the fields of sugar cane are set alight in order to sanitise the soil, the stems are scorched in this...

Nutritional needs

The four elements required by organisms in the largest quantity gram amounts are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. This is because these are the elemental constituents of the key cellular components of carbohydrates Fig. 1.3 , lipids Fig. 1.4 , proteins Fig. 1.5 and nucleic acids Fig. 1.6 . Phosphorus and sulphur are also important in this regard. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and iron are demanded at the milligram level, while microgram amounts of copper, cobalt, zinc, manganese,...

Whiskey

Foreshot Middle Cut

Whisky spelled this way for Scotch, but as whiskey for Irish and other forms of the product is a distilled beverage made from cereals and normally matured in oak. It is subject to a great deal of legislation and custom. EU regulations state that it can be made from any cereal aided by starch-degrading enzymes with distillation to less than 94.8 ABV, with ensuing maturation in wooden casks of less than 700 L in volume for a period in excess of 3 years for sale at a strength in excess of 40 ABV....

Overview of malting and brewing

Micro Brewery Mash Tun

Brewer's yeast Saccharomyces can grow on sugar anaerobically by fermenting it to ethanol While malt and yeast contribute substantially to the character of beers, the quality of beer is at least as much a function of the water and, especially, of the hops used in its production. Barley starch supplies most of the sugars from which the alcohol is derived in the majority of the world's beers. Historically, this is because, unlike other cereals, barley retains its husk on threshing and this husk...

T

Cylindroconical Fermentor Principles

Discard 65 Hl yeast contaminated propagation yeast vessel 650 Hl fermentation vessel Fig. 2.24 Yeast propagation. After MacDonald et al 1984 . The sugar is 'dribbled in' and the end result is a far higher yield of biomass, perhaps four-fold more than is produced when the sugar is provided in a single batch at the start of fermentation. The majority of brewing yeasts are resistant to acid pH 2.0-2.2 and so the addition of phosphoric acid to attain this pH is very effective in killing bacteria...

Caramel

This is still produced to this day by burning sugar, but in very controlled ways. The principal products are produced by the polymerisation of glucose by dehydration. The process is catalysed by acids or bases and requires temperatures in excess of 120 C. In some markets, the word caramel is retained for materials that are produced in the absence of nitrogen-containing compounds and these products are used for flavouring value. Where N is present, then 'sugar colours' are produced and these are...

Nonenzymatic browning

These are chemical reactions that lead to a brown colour when food is heated. The relevant chemistry is known as the Maillard reaction, which actually comprises a sequence of reactions that occurs when reducing sugars are heated with compounds that contain a free amino group, for example, amino acids, proteins and amines Fig. 1.22, Table 1.7 . In reflection of the complexity of the chemistry, there are many reaction intermediates and products. As well as colour, Maillard reaction products have...

CuSO4 h2s CuS h2so4

Norisoprenoids

Certain inorganic precipitates can be thrown in wine, with tartrate being a key problem. This is avoided by cold treatment of the wine. Protein hazes are avoided by the use of chilling and bentonite. Maintaining wine in an anaerobic state and with 20-30 mgL-1 SO2 is generally sufficient to prevent spoilage by most bacteria and yeast. Furthermore, when fermented to dryness, most white wines are relatively resistant to spoilage. The use of other micro organisms in wine production Red wines...