Additives

A range of additional ingredients may be used to gain mastery over variations in raw materials and process conditions. Amongst the enzymes that may be used are pentosanases, which reduce viscosity, notably in rye-based breads, and allow more consistency in water binding. Proteinases afford slacker dough by degrading protein structure. Furthermore, they promote browning and aroma by releasing free amino compounds that enter into Maillard reactions. Emulsifying agents may be used, such as sodium stearoyl lactylate and sor-bitan esters (Fig. 12.2). Oxidising agents are used to improve the rheology of the dough such that gas retention is improved. Such agents promote the oxidation of thiol groups in protein to dithiol bridges and the resultant cross-linking of proteins molecules leads to firmer gluten (Fig. 12.3). A key agent is ascorbic acid, which is converted to dehydroascorbic acid during dough preparation and it is the latter that oxidises the thiol groups. Bromate promotes spongy, dry extensible dough with good gas retention. The converse

O CH3 O

Sodium stearoyl lactylate

O CH3 O

Fig. 12.2 Emulsifying agents.

Sorbitan monooleate

Fig. 12.2 Emulsifying agents.

Fig. 12.3 The oxidation of protein thiol groups.

impacts are afforded by reducing agents (e.g. the couple of cysteine and ascorbic acid), which weaken gluten by breaking thiol bridges. This is important in the making of cookies.

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