Baking

This is of course the most energy intensive stage in the entire process. Temperatures may ordinarily reach 200-250°C for perhaps 50 min for wheat bread. Baking results in a firming or stabilisation of the structure and the formation of characteristic aroma substances. More gas bubbles are generated, leading to an increase in volume of typically 40% and of surface area of 10%.

Table 12.2 Flavour components of bread.

Produced during Produced during

Table 12.2 Flavour components of bread.

Produced during Produced during

Component

fermentation

baking

Aldehydes

/

/

Alkane alcohols

/

Alkene alcohols

/

Amines

/

Diketones

/

Esters

/

Fatty acids

/

Furan derivatives

/

Heterocylic compounds

/

Hydroxy acids

/

Keto acids

/

Ketones

/

/

Lactones

/

/

Pyrazines

/

Pyridines

/

Pyrroles

/

Apart from temperature, the relative humidity in the oven is also important. Firming of the crust must be delayed to permit satisfactory spring and optimal loaf volume. Accordingly, low-pressure steam is directed into the oven at the start of baking and this, by condensing on the surface of the dough, keeps it moist and elastic.

The stages in baking are (1) an enzyme active zone (30-70° C), (2) a starch gelatinisation zone (55°C to <90°C); (3) water evaporation and (4) browning and aroma formation.

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