Balsamic

Apple Cider Vinegar Benefits

10 Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar

Get Instant Access

At the other end of the quality spectrum is balsamic vinegar. It has been produced for hundreds of years in Northern Italy, notably the provinces of Modina and Reggio Emilia. The base material is grape must, preferably Trebbiano. Alcoholic fermentation is effected about 24 h after pressing, with must gently boiled until it is reduced to a third or a half by volume. This leads to a high sugar concentration of about 30%. The alcoholic fermentation and the acetification occur together very slowly. The relevant organisms are yeasts Saccharomyces and Zygosaccharomyces and bacteria Acetobacter and Gluconobacter. In the process, a series of chemical transformations alongside the slow microbial action leads to a flavoursome and complex mix of alcohols, aldehydes and organic acids.

The process is performed in a series of decreasingly sized barrels made of various types of wood. They are located in efficiently ventilated areas that are hot and dry in the summer months but cool in winter. Each year a portion from the smallest barrel is removed for consumption to be replaced by an equivalent amount from the next sized barrel, which in turn has its volume restored from the next barrel, and so on. The largest barrel is made up to volume using that season's boiled must. The finished product is dark brown, syrupy, sweet, sour (6-18% acetic acid by weight) and with a pleasant aroma. This patient process takes at least a dozen years, with some products emerging for sale after as many as 50 years. Yields are perforce low (less than 1 L of vinegar from 100 kg of fresh must).

The chemical composition and major volatile components of the main vinegars are shown in Tables 9.2 and 9.3, respectively.

Table 9.2 Chemical composition of vinegars.

Parameter

Balsamic

Cider

Malt

Wine

Synthetic

Specific gravity

1.042-1.361

1.013-

1.024

1.013

1.022

1.013-

1.02

1.007-1.022

Total solids (g L-1)

337-874

19-

35

3.0

28.4

8.7-

24.9

1.0-4.5

Total acidity (as acetic acid, %)

6.2-14.9

3.9-

9.0

4.3

5.9

5.9-

9.2

4.1-5.3

Sugars (gL-1)

351-690

1.5-

7.0

0-

6.2

—

Date derived from Plessi (2003).

Date derived from Plessi (2003).

Table 9.3 Volatile components in vinegars.

Volatile

Balsamic

Cider

Malt

Wine

Acetaldehyde

V

V

V

V

Acetone

V

V

V

Benzaldehyde

V

V

2,3-Butanediol

V

V

2,3-Butanedione

V

2-Butanone

V

Y —Butyrolactone

V

Diethyl succinate

V

Ethanol

V

V

V

V

Ethyl acetate

V

V

V

V

Ethyl formate

V

V

V

V

Ethyl lactate

V

Furan

V

Furfural

V

3-Hydroxy-2-butanone

V

V

Isobutanal

V

Isobutyl acetate

V

V

Isobutyl formate

V

V

Isopentyl acetate

V

V

Isopentyl formate

V

Isovaleraldehyde

V

Methyl acetate

V

2-Methylbutanal

V

2-Methyl-1-butanol

V

V

V

3-Methyl-1-butanol

V

V

V

V

2-Methyl-1-propanol

V

V

V

2-Methyl-3-butene-2-ol

V

2-Pentanone

V

V

V

2-Pentanol

V

3-Pentanol

V

Phenylacetaldehye

V

Propionaldehyde

V

2,4,5-Trimethyl-1,3-dioxolane

V

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Vinegar For Your Health

Vinegar For Your Health

A resource for the many ways you can use Vinegar to improve your health! In today's society of miracle medicine, we often overlook things that have been around hundreds of years! Things like Vinegar!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment