This is still produced to this day by burning sugar, but in very controlled ways. The principal products are produced by the polymerisation of glucose by dehydration. The process is catalysed by acids or bases and requires temperatures in excess of 120°C. In some markets, the word caramel is retained for materials that are produced in the absence of nitrogen-containing compounds and these products are used for flavouring value. Where N is present, then 'sugar colours' are produced and these are used for colouring purposes.

Caramel is polymeric in nature, but also contains several volatile and nonvolatile lower molecular weight components that afford the characteristic flavour compounds, such as maltol and isomaltol (Fig. 1.24).



Fig. 1.25 Some antioxidants.

Caffeic acid




Fig. 1.25 Some antioxidants.

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  • layton
    What is fermented caramel?
    6 years ago

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