Apple Cider Vinegar Benefits

10 Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar

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Vinegar is made either by the microbial fermentation of alcohol or by the dilution of acetic acid. It has a pedigree probably spanning more than 10 000 years and, in that time, has been extensively used as food, medicine and for rituals. Wine being the first liquid to have spontaneously soured, we have the derivation of vinegar: Vin aigre - in French, sour wine.

Hippocrates understood the medicinal value of vinegar and such uses continued right through the Middle Ages and beyond as an internal and also topical treatment (remember Jack falling down the hill). The acidity represents formidable antimicrobial scope.

Vinegar is nowadays mostly used to afford desired acidic (sour) flavour to foodstuffs and to preserve them. It is still widely produced naturally ('brewed vinegars') by the oxidation of an alcoholic (less than 10-12% ABV) feedstock. The alcohol may be in the form of wine, cider, beer or other alcohol derived from the fermentation of grain, fruit, honey, potatoes, molasses or whey (Table 9.1). In industrial countries, more than 2L of vinegar are consumed per head each year. Apart from direct use in domestic cooking and in finished foods, it is used extensively inter alia for mayonnaises, sauces, ketchups and pickles. For pickling purposes, the acetic acid concentration should exceed 3.6% (w/v).

Table 9.1 Base materials for the production of vinegar.


Palm sap

Banana (and skins)


Cashew apples


Cocoa sweatings


Coconut water


Coffee pulp

Prickly pear






Sugar cane


Sweet potato



Kiwi fruit


Malted barley




Maple products





The key organism is Acetobacter (formerly known as Mycoderma), with pertinent strains being Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter pastorianus and Acetobacter hansenii. Depending on the species, they function best in the temperature range 18-34° C. Fermentation is usually arrested when there is a minimal but finite residual ethanol presence so as to avoid over-oxidation to CO2 and water. The key equation is

The conversion of ethanol to acetic acid is accompanied by secondary fermentation important for the generation of aroma-active compounds, such as acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and other esters, and higher alcohols, such as methyl butanol. The flavour so-derived (and also directly) depends on the source of the alcohol.

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The Miracle Of Vinegar

The Miracle Of Vinegar

You may be forgiven for thinking that these passed down secrets had gone for good, washed away with time and the modern age, But they're not. You can now own three of the best traditional did you know style reports that were much loved by our parents and grandparents. And they were pretty smart too because not only will these reports save you time and money but they'll also help you eliminate some of the scourges of modern day living such as harmful chemical usage in the home.

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