Contents

Preface xii

Acknowledgements xiii

Introduction xiv

Chapter 1 The Science Underpinning Food Fermentations 1

Micro-organisms 3

Microbial metabolism 5

Nutritional needs 5

Environmental impacts 10

Temperature 10

pH 12

Water activity 13

Oxygen 14

Radiation 15

Hydrostatic pressure 15

Controlling or inhibiting growth of micro-organisms 16

Heating 16

Cooling 17

Drying 17

Irradiation 17

Filtration 17

Chemical agents 17

Metabolic events 19

Catabolism 19

Anabolism 24

The origins of the organisms employed in food fermentations 26

Some of the major micro-organisms in this book 28

Yeast 29

Lactic acid bacteria 31

Lactococcus 32

Leuconostoc 32

Streptococcus 32

Lactobacillus 33

Pediococci 33

Enterococcus 33

Providing the growth medium for the organisms 33

Fermenters 34

Downstream processing 34

Some general issues for a number of foodstuffs 34

Non-enzymatic browning 35

Enzymatic browning 36

Caramel 37

Antioxidants 38

Bibliography 38

Chapter 2 Beer 40

Overview of malting and brewing 40

Barley 43

Mashing: the production of sweet wort 51

Milling 51

Mashing 52

Adjuncts 56

Wort separation 57

Lauter tun 58

Mash filters 58

Water 60

Hops 61

Wort boiling and clarification 63

Wort cooling 65

Yeast 66

Brewery fermentations 70

Filtration 74

The stabilisation of beer 74

Gas control 75

Packaging 75

Filling bottles and cans 76

Filling kegs 77

The quality of beer 77

Flavour 77

Foam 86

Gushing 86

Spoilage of beer 86

Beer styles 88

Bibliography 88

Chapter 3 Wine 89

Grapes 89

Grape processing 93

Stemming and crushing 94

Drainers and presses 96

Fermentation 98

Juice 98

Yeast 99

Clarification 100

Filtration 101

Stabilization 101

The use of other micro organisms in wine production 101

Champagne/sparkling wine 102

Ageing 102

Packaging 103

Taints and gushing 105

The composition of wine 105

Bibliography 105

Chapter 4 Fortified Wines 106

Sherry 107

Port 108

Madeira 109

Bibliography 110

Chapter 5 Cider 111

Apples 112

Milling and pressing 113

Fermentation 115

Cider colour and flavour 117

Post-fermentation processes 119

Problems with cider 120

Bibliography 121

Chapter 6 Distilled Alcoholic Beverages 122

Whisk(e)y 122

Distillation 124

Whiskey variants 128

Cognac 128

Armagnac and wine spirits 129

Rum 130

Bibliography 132

Chapter 7 Flavoured Spirits 133

Vodka 133

Gin 134

Liqueurs 135

Bibliography 142

Chapter 8 Sake 143

Sake brewing 147

Polishing, steeping and steaming 148

Making koji 149

Making moto 149

Moromi 150

Modern sake making 151

The flavour of sake 151

Types of sake 151

Serving temperature 152

Bibliography 153

Chapter 9 Vinegar 154

Vinegar making processes 155

Malt vinegar 156

Wine vinegar 157

Other vinegars 157

Chemical synthesis of vinegar 158

Balsamic 158

Bibliography 159

Chapter 10 Cheese 160

Milk 161

The culturing of milk with lactic acid bacteria 164

Milk clotting 164

Whey expulsion 165

Curd handling 165

The production of processed cheese 166

The maturation of cheese 166

Bibliography 168

Chapter 11 Yoghurt and Other Fermented Milk Products 169

Bibliography 171

Chapter 12 Bread 172

Flour 173

Water 173

Salt 173

Fat 174

Sugar 174

Leavening 174

Additives 175

Fermentation 176

Dough acidification 177

Formation of dough 177

Leavening of doughs 178

Processing of fermented doughs 178

Baking 178

Bread flavour 179

Staling of bread 179

Bread composition 180

Bibliography 180

Chapter 13 Meat 182

The role of components of the curing mixture 182

Meat fermentation 183

Bibliography 185

Chapter 14 Indigenous Fermented Foods 186

Soy sauce 186

Mash (moromi) stage 188

Miso 190

Natto 191

Bibliography 192

Chapter 15 Vegetable Fermentations 193

Cucumbers 193

Cabbage 195

Olives 196

Untreated naturally ripe black olives in brine 196

Lye-treated green olives in brine 196

Bibliography 197

Chapter 16 Cocoa 198

Roasting 201

Production of cocoa mass or chocolate liquor 202

Cocoa butter 202

Production of chocolate 202

Bibliography 203

Chapter 17 Mycoprotein 204

Bibliography 205

Chapter 18 Miscellaneous Fermentation Products 206

Bibliography 211

Index

Vinegar For Your Health

Vinegar For Your Health

A resource for the many ways you can use Vinegar to improve your health! In today's society of miracle medicine, we often overlook things that have been around hundreds of years! Things like Vinegar!

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