Downstream processing

For many of the foodstuffs that we address, some form of post-fermentation clarification is necessary to remove surplus microbial cells and various other types of insoluble particles. Cells may be harvested by sedimentation (perhaps encouraged by agents such as isinglass or egg white), centrifugation or filtration. Additionally, there may be other downstream treatments, such as the adsorption of materials that might (if not removed) fall out of solution and ruin the appearance of a product, for example, polyphenols and proteins in beer. Many products have their microbial populations depleted either by pasteurisation or filtration through depth and/or membrane filters. Finally, of course, they receive varying degrees of primary and secondary packaging.

Several of the products described in the present volume involve distillation stage(s) in their production. This will be described in general terms in Chapter 6.

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