The yeast requires fermentable sugars, which are produced during the dough phase. Damaged starch is susceptible to the action of endogenous «-amylase and j-amylase and exogenous amyloglucosidase and «-amylase. If enzyme levels are insufficient, then loaf volumes and/or flavour are inadequate, the product is crumbly and there is rapid staling. Malt is added as an enzyme source especially for rolls and buns. The resultant increase in sugar causes

Rye flour

Water, bacterial starter

Water, bacterial starter

Rye flour, wheat flour yeast, salt, water

Ferment 23-31"C, 15-24h

Mix, knead t



Ferment 26 "C, 1-2h Prove 30-40"C, 30-60min Bake 200-250"C, 35-40min

Cool, package, distribute r

Fig. 12.4 The sourdough process.

increased caramélisation and therefore development of colour and flavour and improved crispness and shelf life. The presence of proteolytic enzymes in malt precludes its use in the manufacture of any product demanding strong gluten.

This involves the use of either sourdough (Fig. 12.4) or added acids, such as lactic, acetic, citric and tartaric.

Dough formation demands good mixing and aeration. The carbon dioxide produced during fermentation increases the size of air bubbles that are introduced, and in turn the oxygen whipped in is utilised by the yeast in its production of membrane materials. The oxygen also has a direct impact on dough structure.

Flour must be stored for 2-4 weeks before it used. The impact is shorter gluten through oxidative events occurring in the storage. Storage must not be prolonged so as to avoid the production of fatty acids that change the rheological properties of the flour and lead to off flavours.

Flour is first sieved, which in itself aids the uptake of air. Mixing with water is performed in diverse types of machine, and must be longer for stronger glutens. Wheat bread dough is mixed at 22-24°C, rye dough at 28°C.

The water hydrates the flour particles with starch absorbing up to a third of its weight. The pentosans also bind water, as does the gluten that swells with up to three times its own weight of water. The dough becomes putty-like and un-elastic and comprises some 8% air bubbles. With further mechanical input, the dough is rendered elastic and, if taken to excess, the dough disintegrates.

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