Milling and pressing

Table 5.2 Cider apple cultivars.

Bittersharp Brown Snout Bulmer's Foxwhelp Chisel Jersey Kingston Black

Bittersweet Ashton Brown Chisel Jersey Dabinett Ellis Bitter

Harry Master's Jersey Major

Medaille d'Or Michelin Taylor's Tremlett's Bitter Vilberie Yarlington Mill

Sharp

Brown's Apple Frederick Reinette Obry

Sweet

Northwood Sweet Alford Sweet Coppin

Table 5.3 Major components of cider apple juice.

Component Range

Fructose 70-110 g/L

Glucose 15-30 g/L

Sucrose 20-45 g/L

Pectin 1-10 g/L

Amino acids 0.5-2 g/L

Potassium 1.2 g/L

Phenolics and polyphenolics 1-2.5 g/L

Derived from Lea & Drilleu (2003).

Formerly the apples were crushed by stone or wooden rollers with an ensuing pressing in rack and cloth. The pulp was layered in woven synthetic clothes that alternated with wooden racks, the arrangement being referred to as a 'cheese'. Straw was used to separate the layers. The cheese was then stripped down and the pomace mixed with water 10% by weight before re-pressing. The residual pomace was used as animal feed or for pectin production.

In modern cider making facilities, a high-speed grater mill feeds a hydraulic piston press. Within the press are compressible chambers (cf. the mash filters employed in brewing), with many flexible ducts that are enclosed in nylon socks. When the piston is compressed, it forces juice through the ducts. There may be a second extraction by water. When the piston is withdrawn, the dry pomace falls away readily. Yields are much higher (75%+) and there are much lower levels of suspended solids in the apple juice.

The juice is afforded a coarse screening before it is run to tanks fabricated from fibreglass, stainless steel, polyethylene or wood.

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