Miscellaneous Fermentation Products

Table 18.1

Foodstuff

Details

Origin

Acidophilus milk Apéritif wine

Bacon (see also Chapter 13)

Bagel (see also Chapter 12)

Bagoong

Basi

Skim or full fat milk, sterilised, incubated with Lactobacillus acidophilus or Bifidobacterium bifidum (<48 h). Therapeutic value: lowering pH of intestine Bitter tasting, high alcohol wine, often red, drunk before meals. Red wine or white wine strengthened with added grape spirit or alcohol, flavourings. For example, Campari from Italy = red and flavoured with quinine. Dubonnet - France = red or white, flavoured with quinine and herbs Pork sides cured - curing salts containing some or all of sodium chloride, potassium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sugars, ascorbic acid. Covered in curing pickle - 3-6° C for 2-10 days. Taken away from brine and stored at same temperature for up to 2 weeks. May be cold smoked at 25-35° C or cooked to internal temperature of 50-55°C. Bacteria - Micrococcus or Staphylococcus - reduce nitrate to nitrite, which is active form in producing active pink nitroso compounds. Lactobacillus active in maturing. Shorter process may find chemical curing more important than microbial curing Traditional Jewish bread. Baker's yeast and sometimes egg added to wheat flour dough, fermenting and proofing 40-50 min, knocked back to original size by expelling gas, dividing and rolling into balls, grilled 4-5 min at 200°C, dropped into boiling water for 15-20min, drained and baked in oven at 200°C for 15 min until crisp Fermented salty fish paste. Condiment with rice dishes in Asia. Remove heads and eviscerate fish. May be sun dried for 3-4 days and then pounded. One part salt to 3 parts fish. Fermented in earthenware vats for 1-4 months. Final NaCl of 20-25% by weight. May be further pounded and coloured up with Angkak (a red colouring agent made from rice by action of mould Monascus purpureus). Pickle appearing at surface of fermenting mass removed and may be used as fish sauce. Proteolysis by autolytic enzymes releases peptides, amino acids, amines and ammonia. Minor role for salt-tolerant bacteria of Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pediococcus and Bacillus Alcoholic wine from sugar cane juice. Extracted by pressing cane, stored up to year, concentrated by boiling, leaves from guava may be immersed late in boiling. Filter into earthenware containers. Cooled to 40-45°C. Starter may be added, perhaps dried rotting fruit. 30-35°C, 4-6 days, or left 3-9 months. Starter comprises yeasts (Saccharomyces and Endomycopsis) and bacteria - lactic acid bacteria, especially Lactobacillus

Europe and North America

International

International

Middle East, North America

East Asia, South East Asia

East Asia, South East Asia, Africa

Table 18.1 Continued

Foodstuff

Details

Origin

Bongkrek Coconut press cake, bound by mould mycelium into solid mass. South East Asia

Fried in oil and eaten with soup. Press cake remaining after coconut oil extract, for example, from copra is soaked for several hours in water. Vinegar may be added to lower pH. Pressed, sun-dried, steamed, cooled, inoculated with mould. Fermented on banana leaves, plastic sheets, mats or trays in dark, 24-48 h, 30-35° C. Mould mycelium penetrates and knits everything together. Mould Rhizopus oligosporus or Neurospora sitophila Cachafa Sugar cane spirit, 38+% alcohol Brazil

Chicha Effervescent sour alcoholic beverage. Yellow to red in colour South America made from maize or other starch crops, for example, cassava or beans. Dates to Inca. Chewed (normally women) but these days amylases may be developed via malting. Boiled with water, left 24 h to extract soluble materials, re-boiled. Sugars and molasses may be added. Filtered and the wort left to ferment in previously used containers. 20-30° C for 1-5 days. Lactic acid bacteria especially Lactobacillus, yeast, Acetobacter. Limit the life of the product to the time until which excess acetic acid is produced Corned beef (see Usually from brisket - canned. Curing, but some mild International also Chapter 13) fermentation. Name derives from large grains of salt used, which were called 'corns'. Beef salted in brine or pickle or the pickle is injected in more modern processes. Curing pickle sodium chloride, potassium or sodium nitrate or sodium nitrite, spices and herbs. These may include laurel, allspice, celery and onions. Placed in covered pickle for up to 2-3 weeks. Cooked in water or steamed to internal temperature of 68-71°C, cooled. May be canned and re-cooked. Micrococcus and some lactic acid bacteria Country ham (see Semi-dried cured pork. Salted and dried usually uncooked, may be International also Chapter 13) smoked. Matured several months. For example, Cumberland, Kentucky, Parma (seasoned with pepper, allspice coriander and mustard and rubbed with pepper). Smithfield ham heavily smoked with hickory. Salts used are sodium chloride and potassium or sodium nitrate. Sometimes sugar used. Flavourings added to curing salt. Left at 5-15° C for 2-4 weeks and further pickling added, more weeks or months before cold smoking at 30-40°C over 1-5 weeks. Matured at 20-25°C for up to 2 years. Ham dries in this period. Nitrate to nitrite by Micrococcus and Staphylococcus. Some lactic acid bacteria, especially Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillusplantarum. Some moulds especially Penicillium nalgiovense or Aspergillus spp. may coat surface of dried hams

Dried fish Salted low-fat fish dried to various degrees. Storage and International preservation in hot countries. Eviscerate and salt to 30-35% of weight with sodium chloride, loaded into barrels left at ambient (20-35°C) for 5-128 days. Removed from containers and sun-or air-dried for several weeks or even months. May be smoked in this period. Only salt-tolerant Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus and Lactobacillus) will survive Dried meat (see For example, salt beef, pastrami. Semi-dried uncooked meat International also Chapter 13) (beef, lamb, goat, etc.) that has been cured, smoked and dried.

Pieces of meat heavily salted with sodium chloride, potassium or sodium nitrate or sodium nitrite. Sugars, spices and seasonings. 5-15°C at high humidity (80-90% RH) at first, later high temperature and low humidity to encourage drying.

Table 18.1 Continued

Foodstuff

Details

Origin

Cold smoking 32-38° C for 2-8 days before maturing for several weeks. Chemical curing with nitrates aided by Micrococcus and Staphylococcus reducing nitrate to nitrite. Also some fermentative lactic acid bacteria and yeast may develop. Pastrami (as an example) beef usually, black pepper, nutmeg, paprika, garlic and allspice. Smoked Fermented egg Whole eggs (especially duck) coated in salt and ash paste and coated in rice hulls. The salt coating likely to comprise sodium chloride, sodium carbonates, tea leaves, calcium oxide and ash from burning grass. Eggs rolled over hull mixture, packed into earthenware or porcelain jars. Tightly sealed with mud and salt. 20-30° C for 15-50 days. Sodium hydroxide made from reaction of lime and sodium carbonate enters through eggshell and denatures and coagulates the egg protein, that is, a chemical as opposed to a microbial 'fermentation' Fish sauce Brown salty liquid produced by breakdown of fish by fish enzymes. Small marine or fresh water fish, shrimps used whole, cereal (usually rice) added and koji. 1-2 parts salt to 5 parts fish. Packed into jars, concrete tanks or wooden vats. Left to ferment 20-35°C for 3-15 months. Liquid separated by filtration. Solid residues may be used to make Bagoong. Autolytic breakdown of fish protein. Sometimes fresh pineapple juice or koji added as source of proteinases. Trimethylamine and ammonia key products. Salt-tolerant Staphylococcus, Micrococcus and Bacillus may play a minor role in flavour development

German salami Dry, smoked uncooked sausage usually medium chopped and (see also medium seasoning. Cold (-4 to —2°C) lean meat chopped and

Chapter 13) mixed with sodium chloride, potassium nitrate or sodium nitrite.

Sodium ascorbate, spices, seasonings, sugar and sometimes glucono-5-lactone. Pork fat chopped in. Stuffed at —4°C into casings or reformed collagen or artificial cellulose. Transferred to 'green room' where fermentation takes place at 20-32°C under high RH for 18-48 h if starter culture added. Or 5-9 days if not. Usually hot smoked to an internal temperature of 55-63°C, dried slowly at 15-24°C. Micrococcus and Staphylococcus carnosus important in early stages, converting nitrate to nitrite and stabilising colour. Pediococcus and Lactobacillus become dominant and may be added as starters Ghee Clarified butter, usually from cow, goat, buffalo or sheep. Keeps well without refrigeration. Butter, cream or kaffir heated to 110-140° C to melt and evaporate water. Filtered through muslin. Cooled to solidify. Antioxidants added. Lactic acid bacteria -Leuconostoc, Streptococci, Lactobacillus. Severe heating kills lactic acid flora

Jerky (see also Lean meat, salted and sun- or air dried in strips or thin sheets. Hot Chapter 13) climates - dry product with good keeping properties. Snack or crumbled into soups or stews. Meat pieces salted with sodium chloride and perhaps nitrate. Left several days. Micrococci and Staphylococci reduce nitrate. Some development of lactic acid bacteria for flavour

East Asia, South East Asia

East Asia, South East Asia, Europe

Germany

Indian subcontinent, Middle East, South East Asia, Africa

America, Africa

Table 18.1 Continued

Foodstuff

Details

Origin

Kanji

Kefir (see also Chapter 11)

Kimchi (see also Chapter 15)

Mead

Nata

Strong flavoured red alcoholic beverage made from beet juice or India, Israel carrot. Refreshing. Usually consumed in hot weather. Roots peeled and shredded, 100 parts root, 5-6 parts salt, 3-4 parts mustard seed, 400-500 parts water. Ferment at 26-34°C for 4-7 days. Liquid drained for drinking. Portions of previous kanji may be added as a starter. Hansenula anomala and Candida guilliermondii, Candida tropicalis and Geotrichum candidum are active in fermentation

Acidic and mildly alcohol effervescent milk from cows, buffalo Middle East, goat milk. Heated to 90-95°C for 3-5 min. Cooled. Put into Europe, North earthenware vessels. Inoculated with 5% kefir grains or 2-3% Africa other starter. Ferment at 20-25°C for 10-24h, cooled to 12-16°C for a further 14-18 h, 'ripened' at 6-10°C for 5-8 days. Foamy and creamy. Diverse lactic acid bacteria: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Steptococcus lactis. Produce lactic acid from lactose. Lactobacillus bulgaricus produces acetaldehyde, Leuconostoc cremoris produce diacetyl and acetoin and Lactobacillus brevis makes acetoin, acetic acid, ethanol and CO2. Candida kefyr and Kluyveromyces fragilis convert lactose to ethanol and CO2 during the cooler ripening period

Mildly acidic carbonated vegetables - radish, Chinese cucumber, East Asia Chinese cabbage. Essential dish at most Korean meals. Vegetables mixed with small amounts of onion, chilli pepper, garlic, ginger or other flavouring agent and 4-6% salt or brine. Large earthenware vessels. Fish (shrimps, oysters) may be added to flavour. Left in a cool place to ferment often in cellar 10-18°C for 5-20 days. Maturation may be continued for many weeks if cool. Facultative lactic acid bacteria including Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus fecalis, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis. Aerobic bacteria Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas and Bacillus megaterium also grow. Later stages some yeast and moulds. Diverse organic acids

Sweet alcoholic beverage from fermentation of honey with water International or fruit juice. Often spiced. Honey added to 3-4 volumes of water or sometimes fruit juice often with addition of hops, herbs or spices. Usually boiled together. Surface froth skimmed off. 2-3% brewer's yeast added as starter. Ferment 15-25°C for 3-6 weeks. Usually aged in oak casks at 10-15°C for up to 10 years. Periodically transferred between casks or racked to remove deposits. Usually pasteurised, clarified and filtered. Lactic acid bacteria also involved - Lactobacilli with production of lactic and other compounds and lowering of pH

Thick white or cream-coloured gelatinous film growing on surface Philippines of juice from coconut, pineapple, sugar cane or other fruit waste. Eaten as dessert. Fruit juice mixture and pulp ground to a mash and diluted with water, 2% glacial acetic acid, 15% sucrose plus 0.5% ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. 10% inoculum of 48 h culture of acetic acid bacteria added to mixture in jars 28-31°C for 12-15 days. The thick layer of cells plus polysaccharide which forms on surface is washed to remove acetic acid, boiled and candied with 50% sucrose. Stored in barrels till needed. Acetobacter aceti ssp. Xylinum produces an extracellular polymer that can hold 25-30 times own water in gel

Table 18.1 Continued

Foodstuff

Details

Origin

Papadum

Pepperoni (see also Chapter 13)

Pickled fish

Pickled fruit

Pisco Tea

Thin dried sheets of legume, cereal or starch crop flour. Stiff paste made by pounding legume flour, for example, Phaseolus aureus or Mung bean, Phaseolus mungo. Or rice flour, potato, sago or mix. Salt, spices including cardamom, caraway, pepper may be added. Dough made into long cylinder then portions cut and greased and rolled out very thinly. Ferment in sun for several hours. Usually stored in tins until needed. Served after baking in hot fire or deep-frying in oil. Saccharomyces, Candida and lactic acid bacteria all involved

Dried meat sausage - production closely similar to German salami. Moulds of Penicillium nagliovense and Aspergillus grow on surface and impact flavour

Fatty fish, for example, herring pickled in salt sugar and acid brine. Up to 1.5h. Usually whole or head removed, 15-17% salt, 5-7% sugar plus added spices and put in barrels. Left to ferment for several months 5-15°C. More salt and sugar may be added. After perhaps more than 1 year, fish washed and filleted and cut into pieces and packed in pickles of salt, sugar and acid (5-12% acetic). Proteolysis by cathepsins (endogenous proteinases). Softening of texture. Lactic acid bacteria of Pediococci, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus and salt-tolerant Micrococcus and Bacillus and yeasts play a minor role in flavour development

For example, cucumber, dill, but also lime pickle. Pick fruit under-ripe keeping sugar low and acidity high. Wash, dry, 2-3% salt or brine (5-10% salt). Sometimes inoculated with salt by needle. Herbs and spices may be added. Large earthenware jars filled, covered and sealed. 10-15°C for 2-6 weeks. Vinegar, salt and sugar may be added in modern commercial operations to replace traditional fermentation process. Gram-negative Enterobacter grow first, then lactic acid bacteria Leuconostoc, Streptococci, Pediococci, Lactobacillus dominate, producing lactic acid, acetic, ethanol, CO2. Yeast then start to dominate, converting some of the acid to ethanol. If containers opened, oxidative growth occurs

Distilled alcoholic beverage from South American wines

Leaves and shoots of evergreen tree Camellia sinensis. Pruned to bush. Leaves rolled and fermented. Young leaves and shoots picked by hand. Wither 18-24 h, partly fermented. First for Oolong tea or for black tea, rolled directly, cells broken, release contents including enzymes and gives leaf a characteristic twist. Leaves spread in layers 10-15-mm deep in high humidity rooms to ferment 3-6 h. Colour goes from green to light brown. Fired by placing on trays through hot air (70-95°C) and colour goes dark brown. Sorted and classified and packed as dried tea. Black tea can be classified into top quality orange pekoe, from young shoots and leaf tips and souchong, medium quality and made from lower leaves. Green tea: fresh leaves are streamed to make them more pliable and to prevent fermentation, then rolled and fired. Oolong tea - leaves partially fermented before being dried. Fermentation primarily by enzymes released in rolling process. Especially oxidation. Perhaps minor role by bacteria and yeasts

Indian subcontinent

Europe, North America, Oceania

International

International

South America

East Asia, South East Asia, Indian subcontinent, Africa

Table 18.1

Continued

Foodstuff

Details

Origin

Tempe

Beans, mostly soy, bound together by mould mycelium into cake, sliced and dipped into soy or fish sauce or cooked in batter. Or in soups. Soybeans or other legume beans cleaned and soaked in water for 1-12 h. Some fermentation takes place. Then boiled for 1-3 h. Cooled, de-hulled, drained, inoculated with mould or a previous batch of tempe, wrapped in banana leaves or perforated polythene bags allowed to ferment at 27-32° C for 36-48 h. Mycelium penetrates. In initial soaking some early growth of Enterobacteriacea including Klebsiella pneumoniae, which makes Vitamin B12, then lactic acid bacteria dominate, making lactic acid and lowering pH to 4.6-5.2. Helps establish mould Rhizopus oligosporus used in second stage. It releases proteinases. Ammonia produced, ergo pH rises again to 6.5-7. Some lipase released - with up to 25% of lipid converted to free fatty acids

South East Asia

Tequila

Mexican. Juice from Agave tequilara fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and distilled and matured in oak

South America

Thickeners

Various microbially derived thickeners are now available to go alongside more traditional agents such as starch, pectins, alginates, plant gums and cellulose derivatives. Examples are xanthan (Xanthomonas campestris growing on glucose switches to gum production when the supply of nitrogen is depleted), gellan (Pseudomonas elodea), pullulan (Aureobasidium pullulans)

International

Vermouth

Fortified herb and spice-flavoured wine. Usually Muscat flavoured by mixing in approximately 0.5% of macerate of herbs and spices for 1-2 weeks. Daily mixing. When desired flavour reached, the wine is drawn off and filtered. Refrigerated and cold stored for > 1 year. Now herb essences and extracts may be used. French vermouths lower in sugar content and higher in colour and alcohol when compared to Italian. Dry vermouths incorporate more wormwood and bitter orange peel, Citrus auranticum while

Europe

sweet ones contain coriander, cinnamon, and cloves Worcestershire Soybeans, anchovies, tamarinds, shallots, garlic, onion, salt, spices England sauce and flavouring added to vinegar, molasses and sugar. Allowed to ferment 4-6 months with occasional agitation. After maturation, the mix is pressed through a mesh screen that allows just the finer particles to pass. Pasteurised to stop fermentation, then bottled

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Responses

  • enrique fort
    What is Miscellaneous fermentations?
    7 months ago

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