As mentioned above, simple distillation of a mixture of liquids does not produce a clear-cut separation of the various components. If such a separation is required it is necessary to resort to the use of a fractionating column. The theory and practice of this will be described in detail in a later chapter but a few words will be said about it here. The procedure involves the use of a vertical column attached to the top of the boiler which is packed with inert particles such as short lengths of glass tubing known as Raschig rings, ceramic 'saddles', wire gauze, or in fact any non-reactive material with a large surface area.
The vapours from the boiling liquid pass up the column, are condensed to a liquid at the top, and run back down through the packing in the column. This counter-current flow of vapour up and liquid down has the effect of producing a series of mini distillations at the surface of each piece of glass or metal in the column. It is equivalent to carrying out a simple distillation in a pot still and then re-distilling the product over and over again. The final result is an almost perfect separation of the mixture into its various components, allowing each one to be drawn off in sequence from the top of the column in the order of its boiling point. Thus, the most highly volatile components emerge first while the least volatile components emerge last.
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