where AT is the total temperature drop between feed to the first flasher and discharge from the last flasher. °C; N is the number of flash stages; Y is the approach between vapor temperature from the first flasher and liquid leaving the heater in which this vapor is condensed. °C (the approach is usually substantially constant for all stages); and Pi. °C. is the sum of the boiling-point rise and the short-circuiting loss in the first flash stage. The expression for the mean effective temperature difference At available for heat transfer then becomes

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