These include glass, silicon carbide, and similar variations. Even larger tubes are available in these materials, up to 19-mm diameter. They have high thermal conductivities and are usually very smooth surfaces to resist fouling. Very high material/fluid compatibility is seen for these products, not many fluids are excluded. Brittleness is a consideration of these materials and a complete discussion of the service with an experienced supplier is warranted. The major selection criteria to explore is the use of "O" rings and other associated joints at tubesheet. The shell is steel in most cases.
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