Cryogenic Processes

Introduction 11-96

Properties of Cryogenic Fluids 11-96

Properties of Solids 11-96

Structural Properties at Low Temperatures 11-97

Thermal Properties at Low Temperatures 11-97

Electrical Properties at Low Temperatures 11-97

Superconductivity 11-97

Refrigeration and Liquifaction 11-98

Principles 11-98

Expansion Types of Refrigerators 11-98

Miniature Refrigerators 11-100

Thermodynamic Analyses of Cycles 11-100

Process Equipment 11-100

Heat Exchangers 11-101

Expanders 11-101

Separation and Purification Systems 11-102

Air-Separation Systems 11-102

Helium and Natural-Gas Systems Separation 11-103

Gas Purification 11-103

Storage and Transfer Systems 11-104

Insulation Principles 11-104

Types of Insulation 11-104

Storage and Transfer Systems 11-105

Cryogenic Instrumentation 11-106

Pressure 11-106

Liquid Level 11-106

Flow 11-106

Temperature 11-106

Safety 11-106

Physiological Hazards 11-107

Materials and Construction Hazards 11-107

Flammability and Explosion Hazards 11-107

High-Pressure Gas Hazards 11-107

Summary 11-107

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