Evaporators

Primary Design Problems 11-107

Heat Transfer 11-107

Vapor-Liquid Separation 11-107

Selection Problems 11-107

Product Quality 11-108

Evaporator Types and Applications 11-108

Forced-Circulation Evaporators 11-108

Short-Tube Vertical Evaporators 11-109

Long-Tube Vertical Evaporators 11-109

Horizontal-Tube Evaporators 11-110

Miscellaneous Forms of Heating Surface 11-111

Evaporators without Heating Surfaces 11-111

Utilization of Temperature Difference 11-111

Vapor-Liquid Separation 11-111

Evaporator Arrangement 11-113

Single-Effect Evaporators 11-113

Thermocompression 11-113

Multiple-Effect Evaporation 11-113

Seawater Evaporators 11-114

Evaporator Calculations 11-115

Single-Effect Evaporators 11-115

Thermocompression Evaporators 11-115

Flash Evaporators 11-115

Multiple-Effect Evaporators 11-117

Optimization 11-117

Evaporator Accessories 11-117

Condensers 11-117

Vent Systems 11-117

Salt Removal 11-117

Evaporator Operation 11-118

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