Finned-Surface Application Extended or finned surfaces are often used when one film coefficient is substantially lower than the other, the goal being to make hoAoe ~ htAt. A few typical fin configurations are shown in Fig. 11-30a. Longitudinal fins are used in double-pipe exchangers. Transverse fins are used in cross-flow and shell-and-tube configurations. High transverse fins are used mainly with low-pressure gases; low fins are used for boiling and condensation of nonaqueous streams as well as for sensible-heat transfer. Finned surfaces have been proven to be a successful means of controlling temperature driven fouling such as coking and scaling. Fin spacing should be great enough to avoid entrapment of particulate matter in the fluid stream (5mm Minimum Spacing).
The area added by the fin is not as efficient for heat transfer as bare tube surface owing to resistance to conduction through the fin. The effective heat-transfer area is
The fin efficiency is found from mathematically derived relations, in which the film heat-transfer coefficient is assumed to be constant over the entire fin and temperature gradients across the thickness of the fin have been neglected (see Kraus, Extended Surfaces, Spartan Books, Baltimore, 1963). The efficiency curves for some common fin configurations are given in Figs. 11-30a and 11-30£>.
High Fins To calculate heat-transfer coefficients for cross-flow to a transversely finned surface, it is best to use a correlation based on experimental data for that surface. Such data are not often available, and a more general correlation must be used, making allowance for the possible error. Probably the best general correlation for bundles of finned tubes is given by Schmidt [Kaltetechnik, 15, 98-102, 370-378 (1963)]:
FIG. 11-30a Efficiencies for several longitudinal fin configurations.
FIG. 11-30a Efficiencies for several longitudinal fin configurations.
where K = 0.45 for staggered tube arrays and 0.30 for in-line tube arrays: Dr is the root or base diameter of the tube; Vm„ is the maximum velocity through the tube bank, i.e., the velocity through the minimum flow area between adjacent tubes; and Rf is the ratio of the total outside surface area of the tube (including fins) to the surface of a tube having the same root diameter but without fins.
Pressure drop is particularly sensitive to geometrical parameters, and available correlations should be extrapolated to geometries different from those on which the correlation is based only with great caution and conservatism. The best correlation is that of Robinson and Briggs [Chem. Eng. Prog., 62, Symp. Ser. 64, 177-184 (1966)].
Low Fins Low-finned tubing is generally used in shell-and-tube configurations. For sensible-heat transfer, only minor modifications are needed to permit the shell-side method given earlier to be used for both heat transfer and pressure [see Briggs, Katz, and Young, Chem. Eng. Prog., 59(11), 49-59 (1963)]. For condensing on low-finned tubes in horizontal bundles, the Nusselt correlation is generally satisfactory for low-surface-tension [c < (3)(10~6)N/m (30 dyn/cm)] condensates fins of finned surfaces should not be closely spaced for high-surface-tension condensates (notably water), which do not drain easily.
The modified Palen-Small method can be employed for reboiler design using finned tubes, but the maximum flux is calculated from Ao, the total outside heat-transfer area including fins. The resulting value of qmax refers to Ao.
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