This section describes equipment for heat transfer to or from solids by the indirect mode. Such equipment is so constructed that the solids load (burden) is separated from the heat-carrier medium by a wall; the two phases are never in direct contact. Heat transfer is by conduction based on diffusion laws. Equipment in which the phases are in direct contact is covered in other sections of this Handbook, principally in Sec. 20.
Some of the devices covered here handle the solids burden in a static or laminar-flowing bed. Other devices can be considered as continuously agitated kettles in their heat-transfer aspect. For the latter, unit-area performance rates are higher.
Computational and graphical methods for predicting performance are given for both major heat-transfer aspects in Sec. 10. In solids heat processing with indirect equipment, the engineer should remember that the heat-transfer capability of the wall is many times that of the solids burden. Hence the solids properties and bed geometry govern the rate of heat transfer. This is more fully explained earlier in this section. Only limited resultant (not predictive) and "experience" data are given here.
Was this article helpful?