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Opacified powdered insulations (1.3 X 10~1 Pa)

3.5 x 10-1

Multilayer insulations (1.3 X 1CT4 Pa)

1.7-4 x 10-2

Types of Insulation Cryogenic insulations have generally been divided into five general categories: high vacuum, multilayer insulation, powder, foam, and special insulations. Each is discussed in turn in the following sections.

Vacuum Insulation Heat transport across an evacuated space (1.3 X 10~4 Pa or lower), is by radiation and by conduction through the residual gas. The heat transfer by radiation generally is predominant and can be approximated by

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