Carbon steel replaced by an alloy when • appears.

Relative use: from 1 (most popular) through 6 (least popular) combinations. Relative cost: from A (least expensive) to E (most expensive).

Carbon steel replaced by an alloy when • appears.

Relative use: from 1 (most popular) through 6 (least popular) combinations. Relative cost: from A (least expensive) to E (most expensive).

Clad Tube Sheets Usually tube sheets and other exchanger parts are of a solid metal. Clad or bimetallic tube sheets are usedto reduce costs or because no single metal is satisfactory for the corrosive conditions. The alloy material (e.g., stainless steel, Monel) is generally bonded or clad to a carbon steel backing material. In fixed-tube-sheet construction a copper-alloy-clad tube sheet can be welded to a steel shell, while most copper-alloy tube sheets cannot be welded to steel in a manner acceptable to ASME Code authorities.

Clad tube sheets in service with carbon steel backer material include stainless-steel types 304, 304L, 316, 316L, and 317, Monel, Inconel, nickel, naval rolled brass, copper, admiralty, silicon bronze, and titanium. Naval rolled brass and Monel clad on stainless steel are also in service.

Ferrous-alloy-clad tube sheets are generally prepared by a weld overlay process in which the alloy material is deposited by welding upon the face of the tube sheet. Precautions are required to produce a weld deposit free of defects, since these may permit the process fluid to attack the base metal below the alloy. Copper-alloy-clad tube sheets are prepared by brazing the alloy to the carbon steel backing material.

Clad materials can be prepared by bonding techniques, which involve rolling, heat treatment, explosive bonding, etc. When properly manufactured, the two metals do not separate because of thermal-expansion differences encountered in service. Applied tube-sheet facings prepared by tack welding at the outer edges of alloy and base metal or by bolting together the two metals are in limited use.

Nonmetallic Construction Shell-and-tube exchangers with glass tubes 14 mm (0.551 in) in diameter and 1 mm (0.039 in) thick with tube lengths from 2.015 m (79.3 in) to 4.015 m (158 in) are available. Steel shell exchangers have a maximum design pressure of 517 kPa (75 lbf/in2). Glass shell exchangers have a maximum design gauge pressure of 103 kPa (15 lbf/in2). Shell diameters are 229 mm (9 in), 305 mm (12 in), and 457 mm (18 in). Heat-transfer surface ranges from 3.16 to 51 m2 (34 to 550 ft2). Each tube is free to expand, since a Teflon sealer sheet is used at the tube-to-tube-sheet joint.

Impervious graphite heat-exchanger equipment is made in a variety of forms, including outside-packed-head shell-and-tube exchangers. They are fabricated with impervious graphite tubes and tube-side headers and metallic shells. Single units containing up to 1300 m2 (14,000 ft2) of heat-transfer surface are available.

Teflon heat exchangers of special construction are described later in this section.

Fabrication Expanding the tube into the tube sheet reduces the tube wall thickness and work-hardens the metal. The induced stresses can lead to stress corrosion. Differential expansion between tubes and shell in fixed-tube-sheet exchangers can develop stresses, which lead to stress corrosion.

When austenitic stainless-steel tubes are used for corrosion resistance, a close fit between the tube and the tube hole is recommended in order to minimize work hardening and the resulting loss of corrosion resistance.

In order to facilitate removal and replacement of tubes it is customary to roller-expand the tubes to within 3 mm (f in) of the shellside face of the tube sheet. A 3-mm- (f-in-) long gap is thus created between the tube and the tube hole at this tube-sheet face. In some services this gap has been found to be a focal point for corrosion.

It is standard practice to provide a chamfer at the inside edges of tube holes in tube sheets to prevent cutting of the tubes and to remove burrs produced by drilling or reaming the tube sheet. In the lower tube sheet of vertical units this chamfer serves as a pocket to collect material, dirt, etc., and to serve as a corrosion center.

Adequate venting of exchangers is required both for proper operation and to reduce corrosion. Improper venting of the water side of exchangers can cause alternate wetting and drying and accompanying chloride concentration, which is particularly destructive to the series 300 stainless steels.

Certain corrosive conditions require that special consideration be given to complete drainage when the unit is taken out of service. Particular consideration is required for the upper surfaces of tube sheets in vertical heat exchangers, for sagging tubes, and for shell-side baffles in horizontal units.

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