FIG. 11-41 Costs of basic exchangers—all steel, TEMA Class R, 150 lbf/in2, 1958. To convert pounds-force per square inch to kilopascals, multiply by 6.895; to convert square feet to square meters, multiply by 0.0929; to convert inches to millimeters, multiply by 25.4; and to convert feet to meters, multiply by 0.3048.

Cost data for shell-and-tube exchangers from 15 sources were correlated and found to be consistent when scaled by the Marshall and Swift index [Woods et al., Can. J. Chem. Eng., 54, 469-489 (December 1976)].

Costs of shell-and-tube heat exchangers can be estimated from Fig. 11-41 and Tables 11-13 and 11-14. These 1960 costs should be updated by use of the Marshall and Swift Index, which appears in each issue of Chemical Engineering. Note that during periods of high and low demand for heat exchangers the prices in the marketplace may vary significantly from those determined by this method.

Small heat exchangers and exchangers bought in small quantities are likely to be more costly than indicated.

Standard heat exchangers (which are in some instances off-the-shelf items) are available in sizes ranging from 1.9 to 37 m2 (20 to 400 ft2) at costs lower than for custom-built units. Steel costs are approximately one-half, admiralty tube-side costs are two-thirds, and stainless costs are three-fourths of those for equivalent custom-built exchangers.

Kettle-type-reboiler costs are 15 to 25 percent greater than for equivalent internal-floating-head or U-tube exchangers. The higher extra is applicable with relatively large kettle-to-port-diameter ratios and with increased internals (e.g., vapor-liquid separators, foam breakers, sight glasses).

To estimate exchanger costs for varying construction details and alloys, first determine the base cost of a similar heat exchanger of basic construction (carbon steel, Class R, 150 lbf/in2) from Fig. 11-41. From Table 11-13, select appropriate extras for higher pressure rating and for alloy construction of tube sheets and baffles, shell and shell cover, and channel and floating-head cover. Compute these extras in accordance with the notes below the table. For tubes other than welded carbon steel, compute the extra by multiplying the exchanger surface by the appropriate cost per square foot from Table 11-14.

When points for 20-ft-long tubes do not appear in Fig. 11-41, use 0.95 times the cost of the equivalent 16-ft-long exchanger. Length variation of steel heat exchangers affects costs by approximately $1 per square foot. Shell diameters for a given surface are approximately equal for U-tube and floating-head construction.

Low-fin tubes (g-in-high fins) provide 2.5 times the surface per lineal foot. Surface required should be divided by 2.5; then use Fig. 11-41 to determine basic cost of the heat exchanger. Actual surface times extra costs (from Table 11-14) should then be added to determine cost of fin-tube exchanger.

TABLE 11-13 Extras for Pressure and Alloy Construction and Surface and Weights*

Percent of steel base price, 1500-lbf/in2 working pressure

Shell diameters, in

TABLE 11-13 Extras for Pressure and Alloy Construction and Surface and Weights*

Percent of steel base price, 1500-lbf/in2 working pressure

Shell diameters, in


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