One interesting consequence of this fact is the inability to construct a hairpin tube bundle having the smallest radius bends common to a conventional U-tube, TEMA shell, and tube bundle. In fact, in the larger hairpin sizes the tubes might be better described as curved rather than bent. The smallest U-bend diameters are greater than the outside diameter of shells less than 300 mm in size. The U-bend diameters are greater than 300 mm in larger shells. As a general rule, mechanical tube cleaning around the radius of a U-bend may be accomplished with a flexible shaft-cleaning tool for bend diameters greater than ten times the tube's inside diameter. This permits the tool to pass around the curve of the tube bend without binding.
In all of these configurations, maintaining longitudinal flow on both the shellside and tubeside allows the decision for placement of a fluid stream on either one side or the other to be based upon design efficiency (mass flow rates, fluid properties, pressure drops, and veloci ties) and not because there is any greater tendency to foul on one side than the other. Experience has shown that, in cases where fouling is influenced by flow velocity, overall fouling in tube bundles is less in properly designed longitudinal flow bundles where areas of low velocity can be avoided without flow-induced tube vibration.
This same freedom of stream choice is not as readily applied when a segmental baffle is used. In those designs, the baffle's creation of low velocities and stagnant flow areas on the outside of the bundle can result in increased shellside fouling at various locations of the bundle. The basis for choosing the stream side in those cases will be similar to the common shell and tube heat exchanger. At times a specific selection of stream side must be made regardless of tube-support mechanism in expectation of an unresolvable fouling problem. However, this is often the exception rather than the rule.
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