the pressure difference, there is a greater reduction in compressor work than in refrigerating performance for this dual-pressure process.

In a work-producing expansion, the temperature of the process fluid is always reduced; hence, cooling does not depend on being below the inversion temperature prior to expansion. Additionally, the work-producing expansion results in a larger amount of cooling than in an isenthalpic expansion over the same pressure difference.

In large systems utilizing expanders, the work produced during expansion is conserved. In small refrigerators, the energy from the expansion is usually expended in a gas or hydraulic pump, or other suitable device. A schematic of a simple cold-gas refrigerator using this expansion principle and the corresponding temperature-entropy diagram is shown in Fig. 11-112. Gas compressed isothermally at ambient temperature is cooled in a heat exchanger by gas being warmed on its return to the compressor intake. Further cooling takes place during the engine expansion. In practice this expansion is never truly isentropic, and is reflected by path 3-4 on the temperature-entropy diagram. This specific refrigerator produces a cold gas which absorbs heat from 4-5 and provides a method of refrigeration that can be used to obtain temperatures between those of the boiling points of the lower-boiling cryogens.

It is not uncommon to utilize both the isentropic and isenthalpic expansions in a cycle. This is done to avoid the technical difficulties associated with the formation of liquid in the expander. The Claude or expansion engine cycle is an example of a combination of these meth-

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