Installation Practice

Pipe Depending on diameter, pipe is insulated with cylindrical half, third, or quarter sections or with flat segmental insulation. Fittings and valves are insulated with preformed insulation covers or with individual pieces cut from sectional straight pipe insulation.

Method of Securing Insulation with factory-applied jacketing may be secured with adhesive on the overlap, staples, tape, or wire, depending on the type of jacket and the outside diameter. Insulation which has a separate jacket is wired or banded in place before the jacket (finish) is applied.

Double Layer Pipe expansion is a significant factor at temperatures above 600° F (316° C). Above this temperature, insulation should be applied in a double layer with all joints staggered to prevent excessive heat loss and high surface temperature at joints opened by pipe expansion. This procedure also minimizes thermal stresses in the insulation.

Finish Covering for cylindrical surfaces ranges from asphalt-saturated or saturated and coated organic and asbestos paper, through laminates of such papers and plastic films or aluminum foil, to medium-gauge aluminum, galvanized steel, or stainless steel. Fittings and irregular surfaces may be covered with fabric-reinforced mastics or preformed metal or plastic covers. Finish selection depends on function and location. Vapor-barrier finishes may be in sheet form or a mastic, which may or may not require reinforcing, depending on the method of application, and additional protection may be required to prevent mechanical abuse and/or provide fire resistance. Criteria for selecting other finishes should include protection of insulation against water entry, mechanical abuse, or chemical attack. Appearance, life-cycle cost, and fire resistance may also be determining factors. Finish may be secured with tape, adhesive, bands, or screws. Fasteners which will penetrate vapor-retarder finishes should not be used.

Tanks, Vessels, andEquipment Flat, curved, and irregular surfaces such as tanks, vessels, boilers, and breechings are normally insulated with flat blocks, beveled lags, curved segments, blankets, or spray-applied insulation. Since no general procedure can apply to all materials and conditions, it is important that manufacturers' specifications and instructions be followed for specific insulation applications.

Method of Securing On small-diameter cylindrical vessels, the insulation may be secured by banding around the circumference. On larger cylindrical vessels, banding may be supplemented with angle-iron ledges to support the insulation and prevent slipping. On large flat and cylindrical surfaces, banding or wiring may be supplemented with various types of welded studs or pins. Breather springs may be required with bands to accommodate expansion and contraction.

Finish The materials are the same as for pipe and should satisfy the same criteria. Breather springs may be required with bands.

Additional References: ASHRAE Handbook and Product Directory: Fundamentals, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Condition ing Engineers, Atlanta, 1981. Turner and Malloy, Handbook of Thermal Insulation Design Economics for Pipes and Equipment, Krieger, New York, 1980. Turner and Malloy, Thermal Insulation Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981.

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