Materials Thermal insulations are produced from many materials or combinations of materials in various forms, sizes, shapes, and thickness. The most commonly available materials fall within the following categories:
Fibrous or cellular—mineral. Alumina, asbestos, glass, perlite, rock, silica, slag, or vermiculite.
Fibrous or cellular—organic. Cane, cotton, wood, and wood bark (cork).
Cellular organic plastics. Elastomer, polystyrene, polyisocyanate, polyisocyanurate, and polyvinyl acetate.
Cements. Insulating and/or finishing.
Heat-reflecting metals (reflective). Aluminum, nickel, stainless steel.
Available forms. Blanket (felt and batt), block, cements, loose fill, foil and sheet, formed or foamed in place, flexible, rigid, and semirigid.
The actual thicknesses of piping insulation differ from the nominal values. Dimensional data o appear in Table
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