FIG. 11-122 Evaporator types. (a) Forced circulation. (b) Submerged-tube forced circulation. (c) Oslo-type crystallizer. (d) Short-tube vertical. (e) Propeller calandria. (f) Long-tube vertical. (g) Recirculating long-tube vertical. (h) Falling film. (i,j) Horizontal-tube evaporators. C = condensate; F = feed; G = vent; P = product; S = steam; V = vapor; ENT'T = separated entrainment outlet.
zontal heating elements (usually two-pass), but the vertical single-pass heating element is used whenever sufficient headroom is available. The vertical element usually has a lower friction loss and is easier to clean or retube than a horizontal heater. The submerged-tube forced-circulation evaporator is relatively immune to salting in the tubes, since no supersaturation is generated by evaporation in the tubes. The tendency toward scale formation is also reduced, since supersaturation in the heating element is generated only by a controlled amount of heating and not by both heating and evaporation.
The type of vapor head used with the FC evaporator is chosen to suit the product characteristics and may range from a simple centrifugal separator to the crystallizing chambers shown in Fig. 1l-122b and c. Figure 11-122b shows a type frequently used for common salt. It is designed to circulate a slurry of crystals throughout the system. Figure 11-122c shows a submerged-tube FC evaporator in which heating, flashing, and crystallization are completely separated. The crystallizing solids are maintained as a fluidized bed in the chamber below the vapor head and little or no solids circulate through the heater and flash chamber. This type is well adapted to growing coarse crystals, but the crystals usually approach a spherical shape, and careful design is required to avoid production of tines in the flash chamber.
In a submerged-tube FC evaporator, all heat is imparted as sensible heat, resulting in a temperature rise of the circulating liquor that reduces the overall temperature difference available for heat transfer. Temperature rise, tube proportions, tube velocity, and head requirements on the circulating pump all influence the selection of circulation rate. Head requirements are frequently difficult to estimate since they consist not only of the usual friction, entrance and contraction, and elevation losses when the return to the flash chamber is above the liquid level but also of increased friction losses due to flashing in the return line and vortex losses in the flash chamber. Circulation is sometimes limited by vapor in the pump suction line. This may be drawn in as a result of inadequate vapor-liquid separation or may come from vortices near the pump suction connection to the body or may be formed in the line itself by short circuiting from heater outlet to pump inlet of liquor that has not flashed completely to equilibrium at the pressure in the vapor head.
Advantages of forced-circulation evaporators:
1. High heat-transfer coefficients
2. Positive circulation
3. Relative freedom from salting, scaling, and fouling
Disadvantages of forced-circulation evaporators:
1. High cost
2. Power required for circulating pump
3. Relatively high holdup or residence time
Best applications of forced-circulation evaporators:
1. Crystalline product
2. Corrosive solutions
3. Viscous solutions
Frequent difficulties with forced-circulation evaporators:
1. Plugging of tube inlets by salt deposits detached from walls of equipment
2. Poor circulation due to higher than expected head losses
3. Salting due to boiling in tubes
Short-Tube Vertical Evaporators (Fig. 11-122d) This is one of the earliest types still in widespread commercial use. Its principal use at present is in the evaporation of cane-sugar juice. Circulation past the heating surface is induced by boiling in the tubes, which are usually 50.8 to 76.2 mm (2 to 3 in) in diameter by 1.2 to 1.8 m (4 to 6 ft) long. The body is a vertical cylinder, usually of cast iron, and the tubes are expan ded into horizontal tube sheets that span the body diameter. The circulation rate through the tubes is many times the feed rate; so there must be a return passage from above the top tube sheet to below the bottom tube sheet. Most commonly used is a central well or downtake as shown in Fig. 11-122d. So that friction losses through the downtake do not appreciably impede circulation up through the tubes, the area of the downtake should be of the same order of magnitude as the combined cross-sectional area of the tubes. This results in a downtake almost half of the diameter of the tube sheet.
Circulation and heat transfer in this type of evaporator are strongly affected by the liquid "level." Highest heat-transfer coefficients are achieved when the level, as indicated by an external gauge glass, is only about halfway up the tubes. Slight reductions in level below the optimum result in incomplete wetting of the tube walls with a consequent increased tendency to foul and a rapid reduction in capacity. When this type of evaporator is used with a liquid that can deposit salt or scale, it is customary to operate with the liquid level appreciably higher than the optimum and usually appreciably above the top tube sheet.
Circulation in the standard short-tube vertical evaporator is dependent entirely on boiling, and when boiling stops, any solids present settle out of suspension. Consequently, this type is seldom used as a crystallizing evaporator. By installing a propeller in the downtake, this objection can be overcome. Such an evaporator, usually called a pro peller calandria, is illustrated in Fig. 11-122e. The propeller is usually placed as low as possible to reduce cavitation and is shrouded by an extension of the downtake well. The use of the propeller can sometimes double the capacity of a short-tube vertical evaporator. The evaporator shown in Fig. 11-122e includes an elutriation leg for salt manufacture similar to that used on the FC evaporator of Fig. 11-122b. The shape of the bottom will, of course, depend on the particular application and on whether the propeller is driven from above or below. To avoid salting when the evaporator is used for crystallizing solutions, the liquid level must be kept appreciably above the top tube sheet.
Advantages of short-tube vertical evaporators:
1. High heat-transfer coefficients at high temperature differences
2. Low headroom
3. Easy mechanical descaling
4. Relatively inexpensive
Disadvantages of short-tube vertical evaporators:
1. Poor heat transfer at low temperature differences and low temperature
2. High floor space and weight
3. Relatively high holdup
4. Poor heat transfer with viscous liquids
Best applications of short-tube vertical evaporators:
1. Clear liquids
2. Crystalline product if propeller is used
3. Relatively noncorrosive liquids, since body is large and expensive if built of materials other than mild steel or cast iron
4. Mild scaling solutions requiring mechanical cleaning, since tubes are short and large in diameter
Long-Tube Vertical Evaporators (Fig. 11-122/, g, h) More total evaporation is accomplished in this type than in all others combined because it is normally the cheapest per unit of capacity. The long-tube vertical (LTV) evaporator consists of a simple one-pass vertical shell-and-tube heat exchanger discharging into a relatively small vapor head. Normally, no liquid level is maintained in the vapor head, and the residence time of liquor is only a few seconds. The tubes are usually about 50.8 mm (2 in) in diameter but may be smaller than 25.4 mm (1 in). Tube length may vary from less than 6 to 10.7 m (20 to 35 ft) in the rising film version and to as great as 20 m (65 ft) in the falling film version. The evaporator is usually operated single-pass, concentrating from the feed to discharge density in just the time that it takes the liquid and evolved vapor to pass through a tube. An extreme case is the caustic high concentrator, producing a substantially anhydrous product at 370°C (700°F) from an inlet feed of 50 percent NaOH at 149° C (300° F) in one pass up 22-mm- (8/8-in-) out-side-diameter nickel tubes 6 m (20 ft) long. The largest use of LTV evaporators is for concentrating black liquor in the pulp and paper industry. Because of the long tubes and relatively high heat-transfer coefficients, it is possible to achieve higher single-unit capacities in this type of evaporator than in any other.
The LTV evaporator shown in Fig. 11-122f is typical of those commonly used, especially for black liquor. Feed enters at the bottom of the tube and starts to boil partway up the tube, and the mixture of liquid and vapor leaving at the top at high velocity impinges against a deflector placed above the tube sheet. This deflector is effective both as a primary separator and as a foam breaker.
In many cases, as when the ratio of feed to evaporation or the ratio of feed to heating surface is low, it is desirable to provide for recirculation of product through the evaporator. This can be done in the type shown in Fig. 11-122f by adding a pipe connection between the product line and the feed line. Higher recirculation rates can be achieved in the type shown in Fig. 11-122g, which is used widely for condensed milk. By extending the enlarged portion of the vapor head still lower to provide storage space for liquor, this type can be used as a batch evaporator.
Liquid temperatures in the tubes of an LTV evaporator are far from uniform and are difficult to predict. At the lower end, the liquid is usually not boiling, and the liquor picks up heat as sensible heat. Since entering liquid velocities are usually very low, true heat-transfer coef-
Distance along tube
FIG. 11-123 Temperature variations in a long-tube vertical evaporator.
Distance along tube
FIG. 11-123 Temperature variations in a long-tube vertical evaporator.
ficients are low in this nonboiling zone. At some point up the tube, the liquid starts to boil, and from that point on the liquid temperature decreases because of the reduction in static, friction, and acceleration heads until the vapor-liquid mixture reaches the top of the tubes at substantially vapor-head temperature. Thus the true temperature difference in the boiling zone is always less than the total temperature difference as measured from steam and vapor-head temperatures.
Although the true heat-transfer coefficients in the boiling zone are quite high, they are partially offset by the reduced temperature difference. The point in the tubes at which boiling starts and at which the maximum temperature is reached is sensitive to operating conditions, such as feed properties, feed temperature, feed rate, and heat flux. Figure 11-123 shows typical variations in liquid temperature in tubes of an LTV evaporator operating at a constant terminal temperature difference. Curve 1 shows the normal case in which the feed is not boiling at the tube inlet. Curve 2 gives an indication of the temperature difference lost when the feed enters at the boiling point. Curve 3 is for exactly the same conditions as curve 2 except that the feed contained 0.01 percent Teepol to reduce surface tension [Coulson and Mehta, Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng., 31, 208 (1953)]. The surface-active agent yields a more intimate mixture of vapor and liquid, with the result that liquid is accelerated to a velocity more nearly approaching the vapor velocity, thereby increasing the pressure drop in the tube. Although the surface-active agent caused an increase of more than 100 percent in the true heat-transfer coefficient, this was more than offset by the reduced temperature difference so that the net result was a reduction in evaporator capacity. This sensitivity of the LTV evaporator to changes in operating conditions is less pronounced at high than at low temperature differences and temperature levels.
The falling-film version of the LTV evaporator (Fig. 11-122h) eliminates these problems of hydrostatic head. Liquid is fed to the tops of the tubes and flows down the walls as a film. Vapor-liquid separation usually takes place at the bottom, although some evaporators of this type are arranged for vapor to rise through the tube counter-currently to the liquid. The pressure drop through the tubes is usually very small, and the boiling-liquid temperature is substantially the same as the vapor-head temperature. The falling-film evaporator is widely used for concentrating heat-sensitive materials, such as fruit juices, because the holdup time is very small, the liquid is not overheated during passage through the evaporator, and heat-transfer coefficients are high even at low boiling temperatures.
The principal problem with the falling-film LTV evaporator is that of feed distribution to the tubes. It is essential that all tube surfaces be wetted continually. This usually requires recirculation of the liquid unless the ratio of feed to evaporation is quite high. An alternative to the simple recirculation system of Fig. 11-122h is sometimes used when the feed undergoes an appreciable concentration change and the product is viscous and/or has a high boiling point rise. The feed chamber and vapor head are divided into a number of liquor compartments, and separate pumps are used to pass the liquor through the various banks of tubes in series, all in parallel as to steam and vapor pressures. The actual distribution of feed to the individual tubes of a falling-film evaporator may be accomplished by orifices at the inlet to each tube, by a perforated plate above the tube sheet, or by one or more spray nozzles.
Both rising- and falling-film LTV evaporators are generally un-suited to salting or severely scaling liquids. However, both are widely used for black liquor, which presents a mild scaling problem, and also are used to carry solutions beyond saturation with respect to a crystallizing salt. In the latter case, deposits can usually be removed quickly by increasing the feed rate or reducing the steam rate in order to make the product unsaturated for a short time. The falling-film evaporator is not generally suited to liquids containing solids because of difficulty in plugging the feed distributors. However, it has been applied to the evaporation of saline waters saturated with CaSO4 and containing 5 to 10 percent CaSO4 seeds in suspension for scale prevention (Anderson, ASME Pap. 76-WA/Pwr-5, 1976).
Because of their simplicity of construction, compactness, and generally high heat-transfer coefficients, LTV evaporators are well suited to service with corrosive liquids. An example is the reconcentration of rayon spin-bath liquor, which is highly acid. These evaporators employ impervious graphite tubes, lead, rubber-covered or impervious graphite tube sheets, and rubber-lined vapor heads. Polished stainless-steel LTV evaporators are widely used for food products. The latter evaporators are usually similar to that shown in Fig. 11-122g, in which the heating element is at one side of the vapor head to permit easy access to the tubes for cleaning.
Advantages of long-tube vertical evaporators:
1. Low cost
2. Large heating surface in one body
3. Low holdup
4. Small floor space
5. Good heat-transfer coefficients at reasonable temperature differences (rising film)
6. Good heat-transfer coefficients at all temperature differences (falling film)
Disadvantages of long-tube vertical evaporators:
1. High headroom
2. Generally unsuitable for salting and severely scaling liquids
3. Poor heat-transfer coefficients of rising-film version at low temperature differences
4. Recirculation usually required for falling-film version
Best applications of long-tube vertical evaporators:
1. Clear liquids
2. Foaming liquids
3. Corrosive solutions
4. Large evaporation loads
5. High temperature differences—rising film, low temperature differences—falling film
6. Low-temperature operation—falling film
7. Vapor compression operation—falling film
Frequent difficulties with long-tube vertical evaporators:
1. Sensitivity of rising-film units to changes in operating conditions
Horizontal-Tube Evaporators (Fig. 11-122«) In these types the steam is inside and the liquor outside the tubes. The submerged-tube version of Fig. 11-122i is seldom used except for the preparation of boiler feedwater. Low entrainment loss is the primary aim: the horizontal cylindrical shell yields a large disengagement area per unit of vessel volume. Special versions use deformed tubes between restrained tube sheets that crack off much of a scale deposit when sprayed with cold water. By showering liquor over the tubes in the version of Fig. 11-122/ hydrostatic head losses are eliminated and heat-transfer performance is improved to that of the falling-film tubular type of Fig. 11-122h. Originally called the Lillie, this evaporator is now also called the spray-film or simply the horizontal-tube evaporator. Liquid distribution over the tubes is accomplished by sprays or perforated plates above the topmost tubes. Maintaining this distribution through the bundle to avoid overconcentrating the liquor is a problem unique to this type of evaporator. It is now used primarily for seawater evaporation.
Advantages of horizontal-tube evaporators:
1. Very low headroom
2. Large vapor-liquid disengaging area—submerged-tube type
3. Relatively low cost in small-capacity straight-tube type
4. Good heat-transfer coefficients
5. Easy semiautomatic descaling—bent-tube type
Disadvantages of horizontal-tube evaporators:
1. Unsuitable for salting liquids
2. Unsuitable for scaling liquids—straight-tube type
3. High cost—bent-tube type
4. Maintaining liquid distribution—film type
Best applications of horizontal-tube evaporators:
1. Limited headroom
2. Small capacity
3. Nonscaling nonsalting liquids—straight-tube type
4. Severely scaling liquids—bent-tube type
Miscellaneous Forms of Heating Surface Special evaporator designs are sometimes indicated when heat loads are small, special product characteristics are desired, or the product is especially difficult to handle. Jacketed kettles, frequently with agitators, are used when the product is very viscous, batches are small, intimate mixing is required, and/or ease of cleaning is an important factor. Evaporators with steam in coiled tubes may be used for small capacities with scaling liquids in designs that permit "cold shocking," or complete withdrawal of the coil from the shell for manual scale removal. Other designs for scaling liquids employ flat-plate heat exchangers, since in general a scale deposit can be removed more easily from a flat plate than from a curved surface. One such design, the channel-switching evaporator, alternates the duty of either side of the heating surface periodically from boiling liquid to condensing vapor so that scale formed when the surface is in contact with boiling liquid is dissolved when the surface is next in contact with condensing vapor.
Agitated thin-film evaporators employ a heating surface consisting of one large-diameter tube that may be either straight or tapered, horizontal or vertical. Liquid is spread on the tube wall by a rotating assembly of blades that either maintain a close clearance from the wall or actually ride on the film of liquid on the wall. The expensive construction limits application to the most difficult materials. High agitation [on the order of 12 m/s (40 ft/s) rotor-tip speed] and power intensities of 2 to 20 kW m2 (0.25 to 2.5 hp/ft2) permit handling extremely viscous materials. Residence times of only a few seconds permit concentration of heat-sensitive materials at temperatures and temperature differences higher than in other types [Mutzenberg, Parker, and Fischer. Chem. Eng., 72,175-190 (Sept. 13, 1965)]. High feed-to-product ratios can be handled without recirculation.
Economic and process considerations usually dictate that agitated thin-film evaporators be operated in single-effect mode. Very high temperature differences can then be used: many are heated with Dowtherm or other high-temperature media. This permits achieving reasonable capacities in spite of the relatively low heat-transfer coefficients and the small surface that can be provided in a single tube [to about 20 m2 (200 ft2)]. The structural need for wall thicknesses of 6 to 13 mm (d to a in) is a major reason for the relatively low heat-transfer coefficients when evaporating water-like materials.
Evaporators without Heating Surfaces The submerged-combustion evaporator makes use of combustion gases bubbling through the liquid as the means of heat transfer. It consists simply of a tank to hold the liquid, a burner and gas distributor that can be lowered into the liquid, and a combustion-control system. Since there are no heating surfaces on which scale can deposit, this evaporator is well suited to use with severely scaling liquids. The ease of constructing the tank and burner of special alloys or nonmetallic materials makes practical the handling of highly corrosive solutions. However, since the vapor is mixed with large quantities of noncondensable gases, it is impossible to reuse the heat in this vapor, and installations are usually limited to areas of low fuel cost. One difficulty frequently encountered in the use of submerged-combustion evaporators is a high entrainment loss. Also, these evaporators cannot be used when control of crystal size is important.
Disk or cascade evaporators are used in the pulp and paper industry to recover heat and entrained chemicals from boiler stack gases and to effect a final concentration of the black liquor before it is burned in the boiler. These evaporators consist of a horizontal shaft on which are mounted disks perpendicular to the shaft or bars parallel to the shaft. The assembly is partially immersed in the thick black liquor so that films of liquor are carried into the hot-gas stream as the shaft rotates.
Some forms of flash evaporators require no heating surface. An example is a recrystallizing process for separating salts having normal solubility curves from salts having inverse solubility curves, as in separating sodium chloride from calcium sulfate [Richards, Chem. Eng., 59(3), 140 (1952)]. A suspension of raw solid feed in a recirculating brine stream is heated by direct steam injection. The increased temperature and dilution by the steam dissolve the salt having the normal solubility curve. The other salt remains undissolved and is separated from the hot solution before it is flashed to a lower temperature. The cooling and loss of water on flashing cause recrystallization of the salt having the normal solubility curve, which is separated from the brine before the brine is mixed with more solid feed for recycling to the heater. This system can be operated as a multiple effect by flashing down to the lower temperature in stages and using flash vapor from all but the last stage to heat the recycle brine by direct injection. In this process no net evaporation occurs from the total system, and the process cannot be used to concentrate solutions unless heating surfaces are added.
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