Ventilation

In the design of comfort air-conditioning systems, odors arising from occupants, cooking, or other sources must be controlled. this is accomplished by introducing fresh air or purified recirculated air in sufficient quantities to reduce odor concentrations to an acceptable level by dilution. Recommended fresh-air requirements for different types of buildings are called for in A.S.H.R.A.E. standard 62-1989 "Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality." These values range in the order of 15 to 30 cfm per person, according to application.

In industrial air-conditioning systems, harmful environmental gases, vapors, dusts, and fumes are often encountered. These contaminants can be controlled by exhaust systems at the source, by dilution ventilation, or by a combination of the two methods. When exhaust systems are used, it is necessary to introduce sufficient fresh air into the air-conditioned area to make up for that exhausted. Generally, low exhaust systems are used where the contaminant sources are concentrated and/or where the contaminant may be highly toxic. Where the contaminant comes from widely dispersed points, however, dilution ventilation is usually employed. Combinations of the two systems sometimes provide the least expensive installation. dilution ventilation is not appropriate for cases where large volumes of contaminant are released and cases where the employees must work near the contaminant source. The selection of dilution ventilation for cases with potential fire or smoke should be accompanied by careful study. Details for design of dilution ventilation systems are given in Chap. 25 of the HVAC Applications volume of the A.S.H.R.A.E. Handbooks. Chapter 27 of the same volume discusses industrial exhaust systems. Exhaust stacks should be high enough to adequately dispense the contaminated air and to prevent recirculation into fresh air intakes (Chap. 14 of the 1993 HVAC Fundamentals volume of the A.S.H.R.A.E. Handbooks). Depending on the contaminant and air pollution legislation, it may be necessary to reduce the contaminant emission rate by such methods as filtering, scrubbing, catalytic oxidation, or incineration.

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