S

Figure 8. Trends of glutathione, reducing sugar, dry cell weight (DCW) and ethanol concentration in the broth during the glutathione fermentation in 120-kl fermenter using the feed-forward/feedback control system.

Recent research using mass spectrometry has made it possible to almost continuously measure not only oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations but also many other volatiles at the same time. The increased reliability, freedom of calibration, and rapid analysis with a mass spectrometer has allowed the accurate on-line evaluation of steady-state variables in Fig. 8 for process control and scale-up. Figure 9 shows schematically the instrumentation system using a membrane on the inlet side for analyzing the exhaust gas from the fermenter. In Fig. 9, the left part is the gas sampling system that consists of a knockout pot, preventing the broth from flowing into the mass spectrometer, a filter and a pump, for sampling.

Hass

Figure 9. Schematic representation of analytical system for outlet gas from fermenter. (SV) solenoid valve; (NV) needle valve; (Thy) thermistor.

Hass

Figure 9. Schematic representation of analytical system for outlet gas from fermenter. (SV) solenoid valve; (NV) needle valve; (Thy) thermistor.

As shown in the right side of Fig. 9, a quadrupole mass spectrometer, MSG 300, with a gas-tight ion source, secondary electron multiplier, direction detector, and a turbo-molecular pump (TURBOVAC 150) is equipped with a membrane inlet (all from Nippon Shinku, Tokyo). The resolution scale is 300. Mass spectrometry can also be used for the measurement of dissolved gases in a liquid phase using a steam sterilizable membrane probe. Recently, the application of the mass spectrometer to fermentation processes has increased markedly.

A laser turbidimeter has been developed for the on-line measurement of cell concentration, which is correlated to the turbidity of the cultured broth. However, the application of this turbidimeter to the continuous monitoring of cell growth might be limited to the lower range of cell concentration even in the highly transparent broths compared to the production media containing solid materials such as cane sugar molasses and corn steep liquor.

As indicated in Table 6, the biochemical sensor can be used for intracellular activities, which are closely related to the level of key intermediates such as NAD/NADH and ATP/ADP/AMP. Only one sensor for monitoring on-lineNADH on the intracellular level is commercially available (BioChemTechnology, Malvern, PA). The fluorometer sensor can measure continuously the culture fluorescence, which is based on the fluorescence of NADH at an emission wavelength of 460 nm when excited with light at 360 nm. The sensor response corresponds to the number of viable cells in the lower range of the cell concentration. It should be especially noted that the sensor reflects the metabolic state of microorganisms.

The most attractive sensors now being developed are the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and the near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer for the on-line measurement of composition changes in complex media during cultivation. The FTIR measurements are based on the type and quantities of infrared radiation that a molecule absorbs. The NIR measurements are based on the absorption spectra following the multi-regression analyses. These sensors are not yet available for fermentation processes.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Your Metabolism - What You Need To Know

Your Metabolism - What You Need To Know

If you have heard about metabolism, chances are it is in relation to weight loss. Metabolism is bigger than weight loss, though, as you will learn later on. It is about a healthier, better you. If you want to fire up your metabolism and do not have any idea how to do it, you have come to the right place. If you have tried to speed up your metabolism before but do not see visible results, you have also come to the right place.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment