Bread-making is a custom which has been handed down to us from prehistoric times, but the manufacture of bread as a highly specialized business is one of our recent industries. The somewhat recent invention of bread-making machinery and the introduction of exact methods of controlling the factors involved in the bread-making process have made possible the present popular use of the modern commercial loaf.

Although within the last twenty years bread has improved to a marked degree, still the modern loaf is gradually changing. It is considered that we have much to learn about bread as yet. Many of those engaged in the bread industry feel that we are just now entering a period of great improvement in bread-making.

The loaf of bread as we have it to-day represents the accumulated improvements of all ages and all peoples. The most important of all these improvements in bread-making no doubt was the introduction of the use of the leaven. We first hear of the art of leavening bread with yeast in Biblical times in Israel.

The importance of bread as a food is well set forth in "Give us this day our daily bread." Wells in the Bulletin of the Pan-American Union says, "Se condary foods may be more important than bread with certain classes of society—the rich for example—in certain localities, and at certain limited periods; but through civilization and even beyond, bread and bread alone is the basic common food. What milk is to the infant, bread is to the world."

It is hard to define bread definitely. However, we may say that bread is the commonest food of man and is made of the common cereal of the land.

It is easy to conceive how bread in different parts of the world, because of differences in peoples and kinds of cereals grown, may vary to a great extent. W. C. Wells in the Bulletin of the Pan-American Union says: "The bread grains are first, wheat and rye; second, barley, buckwheat, oats, and a few localities use grass seeds like quinua (in South America), millet (in Europe), Kaffir corn (in Africa); third, Indian corn. First is wheat, more broadly used as a bread grain than all others and until now more important than all others combined. Next in importance is rye, the principal bread grain of northern Europe and extensively used elsewhere. As bread grains, barley, oats, buckwheat, quinua, millet, Kaffir corn, and the like are not very important. Indian corn occupies a singular and not easily definable place as a

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