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Carbohydrates For Fermentation

Beer Carbohydrate Structure

Carbohydrates and their chemistry can be an extremely complicated subject. In this appendix, we're going to give you just a taste of that complexity, and then simplify back down the few simple points that apply directly to fermentation and distillation. Knowing about the complexity and the vast numbers of different kinds of sugars can help appreciate how valuable the traditional fermentable sources truly are. Carbohydrates are materials made up exclusively of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, in a ratio that is very close to one atom of oxygen and two of hydrogen for every carbon atom. The general carbohydrate formula is C(H2O)n. Chains of three or more carbon molecules are called sugars, and are given names that end in the letters -ose. Sugars with six carbons (the most common size) are called hexoses, and five-carbon sugars are pentoses. Many kinds of polysaccharides cannot be enzymatically broken down, and thus cannot be fermented. The dextrins produced in a beer-making wort are not...

Action of Koji Extract Upon Some Carbohydrates

The solution which is prepared by digesting koji in water possesses certain active properties which cause it to resemble in general character the aqueous solution of malt, so carefully experimented upon by Messrs. Brown and Heron. It is of interest and importance to compare the action of koji extract upon the principal carbohydrates in order to establish an identity or a difference between the two species of diastase. From the mode of production there is no reason to suppose that they will be found to be identical, and experiments to be hereafter described will prove that, though they agree in some points, they differ in yet others. The carbohydrates which have been subjected to the action of koji extract are cane-sugar, maltose, dextrin, and gelatinized starch.


It is common practice to use carbohydrates as the carbon source in microbial fermentation processes. The most widely available carbohydrate is starch obtained from maize grain. It is also obtained from other cereals, potatoes and cassava. Analysis data for these substrates can be obtained from Atkinson and Mavituna (1991a). Maize and other cereals may also be used directly in a partially ground state, e.g. maize chips. Starch may also be readily hydrolysed by dilute acids and enzymes to give a variety of glucose preparations (solids and syrups). Hydrolysed cassava starch is used as a major carbon source for glutamic acid production in Japan (Minoda, 1986). Syrups produced by acid hydrolysis may also contain toxic products which may make them unsuitable for particular processes. cals (Coombs, 1987). The cost of molasses will be very competitive when compared with pure carbohydrates. However, molasses contains many impurities and molasses-based fermentations will often need a more...

Molds Used for Fermentation of Indigenous Fermented Foods and Beverages

Especially in Asia, species of Aspergillus, Mucor, and Rhizopus are used as amylase producers for fermented beverages that are based on rice or wheat (150). An example is the production of sake, in which spores of Aspergillus oryzae are used to break down starch to fermentable carbohydrates that are then converted to alcohol by S. cerevisiae. Similarly, Aspergillus spp., Mucor spp., and Rhizopus spp. are used in the production of Chinese, Indian, and Thai spirits, wines, and beers (152).

Nutritional Requirements Of The Cell

The predominant atomic constituents of organisms, C, H, N, 0, P, and S, go into making up the molecules of living matter. All living cells on earth contain water as their predominant constituent. The remainder of the cell consists largely of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, along with a few common salts. A few smaller compounds are very ubiquitous and function universally in bioenergetics, e.g., ATP for energy capture and transfer, and NAD in biochemical dehydrogenation. Microorganisms share similar chemical compositions and universal pathways. They all have to accomplish energy transfer and conversion, as well as synthesis of specific and patterned chemical structures.

Fermentation Process Development of Carbohydrate Based Therapeutics

This chapter focuses on the latest advances in the development of fermentation processes in carbohydrate-based therapeutics. Although fermentation has been the major route in producing bioactive compounds historically, the complexity of carbohydrates and the current remarkable accomplishments of glycobiology have forced a multidiscipline approach to the development of carbohydrate-based therapeutics. Current remarkable achievements of glycotechnology have been demonstrated in metabolic engineering, process optimization, analytical chemistry, monitoring techniques, enzymatic chemical synthesis, and separation techniques, etc. By intentionally incorporating these techniques into fermentation processes, numerous novel approaches have been generated to produce carbohydrate-based therapeutics with higher qualities in terms of authenticity and efficacy, and better yields. Besides, many novel bioactive compounds or drug candidates can be obtained by fermentation in a relatively economic...

Current Carbohydratebased Therapeutics

A selected list of carbohydrate-based therapeutics is shown in Table 1. Considering the chemical classes,, carbohydrate-based therapeutics might be classified into two categories pure carbohydrates and glycoconjugates, consisting of carbohydrates pared with peptides, proteins or lipids. The pure carbohydrate therapeutics includes acarbose, voglibose, miglitol, zanamivir etc.

Yeasts Used As Starter Cultures A Introduction

Brewing Yeast 1000x

Yeasts are involved in both spontaneous and controlled fermentations. For spontaneous fermentation processes, the yeasts are introduced by either the raw materials or via the process equipment (74-76). When yeasts are used as starter cultures, they are in general used as single cultures and may be introduced either to initiate the fermentation process or at a later stage in the fermentation to ensure optimal aroma production. Most yeast species are able to grow under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, some yeast species are specifically respiratory yeasts whereas others are fermentative yeasts for which respiration is repressed even at aerobic conditions. Primarily, yeasts utilize carbohydrates as carbon sources, which are converted into alcohols and CO2 as well as a number of secondary metabolites such as esters, organic acids, aldehydes, and ketones (77).

Production Methods of Carbohydratebased Therapeutics

Although the preparation of heparins is by extraction, the following three routes, chemical synthesis, enzymatic synthesis, and fermentation or their combinations, as listed in Fig. 1, make most of the carbohydrate-based therapeutics. In the chemical route, regioselectivity is the prominent issue in carbohydrate chemistry and the undesired reactions of the hydroxy groups of the sugars should be properly protected during reaction and deprotected afterwards as examplied by a classical disaccharide synthesis in Fig. 2 (8). In spite of the impressive development of novel and efficient methods for the synthesis of complex carbohydrates, these expensive protection and deprotection sequences Carbohydrate production in vitro by enzymatic synthesis has the advantages of absolute regio- and stero-control of the configuration at the anomeric center. Therefore, die efforts and time required for the synthesis of carbohydrates is significantly reduced. Numerous carbohydrate-based therapeutics by...

The Nature And Dynamics Of Ripening

It is now clear that acidulation of the sausage matrix is induced by the interaction of salt-solubilized muscle proteins with both lactic acid and ammonia formed during fermentation (33,59). Molar amounts of lactate and ammonia present (59) as well as produced (54) during sausage ripening have indeed been related to pH and pH changes, respectively. Lactate is mainly produced from (added) carbohydrates but may also be formed during microbial fermentation of glycerol, liberated in lipolysis, and, together with ammonia, from fermentation of amino acids. Besides lactic acid, variable amounts of acetic acid are produced, determined by the nature of the bacteria and their metabolism, both affected by the processing conditions. Finally, considerable amounts of oxygen are consumed during ''fermentation,'' therefore better referred to as metabolism (60). This overall ''sausage

Nonmeat Ingredients

The fundamental nonmeat ingredients essential to semidry sausages include carbohydrates sugars, salt, curing agents, and spices. In addition, starter cultures or acidulants are essential in most cases unless a traditional fermentation or backslopping-type inoculation is being used. A variety of carbohydrates will provide the necessary substrate for production of lactic acid during fermentation, but the simple sugars, such as dextrose, are preferred. Dextrose is most commonly used because it is very readily utilized by all lactic acid bacteria. Final product pH will be directly related to the amount of dextrose in the product formulation, up to about 0.6 -0.7 . Most semidry sausages are formulated with 0.7 -1 dextrose. Greater amounts of dextrose (1.0 or more) will not greatly affect final product pH because the culture cannot grow in the presence of excess acid. Sucrose will also provide acid production and pH change very similar to dextrose and may be used in product formulation. A...

Is 24 Hours Of Fermentation

Figure 2 Change in pH during sausage fermentation using 1 of different carbohydrates. (Control has no carbohydrate.) (From Ref. 13. Courtesy of J. Acton, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, and the Institute of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL.) starter culture. Adding a commercial culture assures meat processors of a pure strain of desirable organisms and provides sufficient number of these organisms to overwhelm any undesirable organisms that may be present. Cultures are generally available in frozen or freeze-dried form but must be handled appropriately to retain maximum viability. For example, thawing the culture in hot water or dispersing the culture in chlorinated water may adversely affect activity and subsequent fermentation rates. There are several specific cultures available, yet it is the first commercial starter, developed in 1957, that remains most common in semidry sausage products. This organism was originally identified as Pediococcus cerevisiae but later (1974)...

Engineering Perspectives of Glycoconjugate Fermentation

There are many factors affecting the biosynthesis of carbohydrates of glycoconjugates such as the cell types, medium composition, and environmental conditions. Although comprehensive studies regarding the research area have not been reported, numerous significant findings of glycoproteins have been achieved as follows.

Requirement for oxygen

Failure to provide oxygen at the start of fermentation results in slow fermentation rate, incomplete attenuation and poor yeast growth. Oxygen is required in brewery fermentation to allow yeast to synthesise sterols and unsaturated fatty acids. These lipids are essential components of membranes (Parks, 1978 Brenner, 1984 Weete, 1989 Nes et al., 1993). Thus, S. cerevisiae is capable of growth under strictly anaerobic conditions only when there is an exogenous supply of sterols and unsaturated fatty acids (Andreason & Stier, 1953, 1954). Under aerobic conditions sterols and unsaturated fatty acids may be synthesised de novo from carbohydrates. The ability to grow under strictly anaerobic conditions is relatively rare among yeasts. Indeed, Visser et al. (1990) concluded that S. cerevisiae was a positive exception in this respect. These authors studied the oxygen requirements of type species from 75 genera of yeasts. In oxygen-limited shake flasks using a complex medium supplemented with...

Utilization of Components in Raw Material During Soya Koji Making

The carbohydrates in the raw material reduce significantly, approximately by one-third to one-quarter, mainly the starches and other hexoses. These components serve as nutrient (or energy) source and are utilized through hydrolysis during the reproduction of the molds. Part of these carbohydrates is converted to alcohols or carbon dioxide, and eventually evaporated. The proteins are hydrolyzed into smaller molecules, with essentially no change in total nitrogen. Also, during mold reproduction, small amounts of organic acids such as lactic acid, succinic acid, gluconic acid, fumaric acid, and kojic acid are produced. Therefore, the soy koji produced is slightly acidic.

Heterofermentative pathway

Mig1 And Saccharomyces

Metabolism of carbohydrates by S. cerevisiae and related yeasts is, in general, not dramatically different from the lactic acid bacteria. These yeasts are facultative anaerobes that are able to use a wide range of carbohydrates. In S. cere-visiae, as in the homofermentative lactic acid bacteria, fermentable sugars are metabolized via the glycolytic pathway to pyruvate, yielding two moles of ATP per hexose. However, S. cerevisiae, rather than making lactic acid, instead decarboxylates the pyruvate to form acetalde-hyde, which is then reduced to ethanol. Thus, the end-products of sugar fermentation by S. cerevisiae are ethanol and CO2. Furthermore, whereas most lactic acid bacteria are obligate fermentors and have limited means for respiratory metabolism, S. cerevisiae has an intact citric acid cycle and a functional electron transport system and can readily grow and respire under aerobic conditions.

Microbial metabolites

Primary And Secondary Metabolites

Which it produces during the various stages of the growth curve. During the log phase of growth the products produced are essential to the growth of the cells and include amino acids, nucleotides, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates, etc. These products are referred to as the primary products of metabolism and the phase in which they are produced (equivalent to the log, or exponential phase) as the trophophase (Bu'Lock et al., 1965).

Carbohydrate Metabolism

In general, approximately 75 of the solids in plants are carbohydrates. Total carbohydrates generally consist of simple sugars, starches, pectic substances, lignin, and cellulose. Cellulose, pectic substances, and lignin occur in all plants as the principal structural components of the cell walls. These structural polysaccharides contribute greatly to the characteristic texture of plant foods. These structural polysaccharides are usually not fermentable. The most common fermentable carbohydrates in vegetables are glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch.

Basic Changes In The Tempeh Fermentation Process

Flow Chart Tempeh

What happens during the fermentation of soybeans into tempeh Generally it is agreed that not only is the flavor, aroma, and texture of plain cooked soybeans enhanced during the fermentation process, but there are several nutritional benefits derived in the process as well to make the beans more easily assimilated by the human body. This is done by the main mold Rhizopus oligosporus, and other minor organisms or their enzymes hydrolizing proteins, carbohydrates, and fats to create smaller and more digestible units. This process makes the protein in tempeh more digestible and usable. B. Changes in Carbohydrates During fermentation, the principal changes in carbohydrates are the rapid decrease of hex-oses and the slow hydrolysis of stachyose, the flatulence factor in beans (4). This makes tempeh a more socially acceptable soybean product.

Preparation And Fermentation Of Leaf Mustard Pickles

The use of salt stock enables processors to handle large quantities of leaf mustards for fermentation and preservation within a rather short harvest time. The term brining is often used synonymously with the term fermentation, probably due to brining being an important step in fermenting vegetables. However, brining of vegetables can be done without eventual fermentation, in particular at a fairly high salt concentration, such as salt stock. In general, fermentation is desired for most vegetables that are given a brine treatment. The fermenting of vegetables serves two main functions. First, the growth of certain fermentable microorganisms results in sensory changes bearing unique characteristics to the vegetables. These changes are desirable by those consumers accustomed to eating fermented vegetables. A second and more important function of fermentation is its preservative effect. This is accomplished when fermentative microorganisms utilize most of the fermentable carbohydrates,...

Changes During Fermentation

During leaf mustard fermentation, a variety of microorganisms may develop. In the initiation stage, LAB species involve competition with other microorganisms for fermentable carbohydrates and eventually predominate, with a resultant drop in pH value and the exclusion of undesirable bacteria. When the leaf mustard was fermented with 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 NaCl for 30 days, pH values changed from the initial value of 5.3 to 3.5, 3.5, 4.8, 5.0, and 5.2, respectively (3). In addition to fermentable carbohydrates, the contents of crude fiber, crude protein, free amino acids, and water-soluble vitamins including thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin were higher in leaf mustard pickles fermented with 15 and 18 NaCl than in pickles fermented with 9 and 12 NaCl (5). When leaf mustard was fermented with 6 and 9 NaCl for 20 days to reach the highest level of microbial population, the total populations, mainly LAB, were 3.2 x 107 and 1.2 x 107 CFU mL, respectively. However, when leaf mustard was...

Microbial food fermentation and world food supply

Microbial fermentation is considered as one of the oldest and most economical methods for food production and preservation (Buckenhuskes, 2001). The fermentation process may 1) increase the digestibility and bioavailability of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals 2) enhance the nutritional value such as vitamin content 3) shorten the cooking time (e.g. soybean tempeh fermentation decreases the cooking time dramatically, from 5 to 6 h for raw soybeans to 4 to 10 min for soybean tempeh) (Steinkraus et al., 1983) 4) convert animal feed into food fit for humans, such as oncom (produced from peanut press cakes with either the tempeh mould Rhizopus oligosporus or Neurospora intermedia), or tempeh Bongkrek (coconut press cakes fermented with the tempeh mould) and 5) increase the microbial safety (Steinkraus et al., 1983). Therefore, microbial fermented vegetable foods are very important and staple components in the diets of millions of people, especially in developing countries where...

Assimilation of wort nutrients

Brewing yeast strains are heterotrophic organisms capable of utilising a wide variety of nutrients to support growth and generate energy. A property of such organisms is that they must be capable of selective uptake. Thus, assimilation of individual nutrients from wort is made complex by the response of yeast to the mixture of components present. As with all cells, specific systems exist in brewing yeast strains to accommodate the uptake of individual or related classes of nutrients. Of particular relevance to brewery fermentation, assimilation of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds are highly regulated processes. When presented with a choice of nutrients, yeast cells tend to use first those that are most easily assimilated. Not only are some components utilised in preference to others but also the presence of some nutrients inhibits the utilisation of others. In consequence, uptake of carbohydrates and the various sources of nitrogen present in wort are ordered processes. Brewing...

Tempeh nutrition and safety

Among the most important changes that occur during the tempeh fermentation are those that affect the nutritional quality of tempeh. As noted above, the concentration of the major macronutrients (i.e., protein, fat, and carbohydrates) decreases as the soybeans are converted to tempeh, due to enzymatic hydrolysis. These changes may account, in part, for an improvement in nutritional quality. For example, it has been suggested that protein hydrolysis

Cell wall and flocculation

The brewing yeast cell wall is a hugely important and frequently underestimated organelle. Primarily it is made up of an array of carbohydrates (80-90 of the wall) with proteins embedded within it. As memorably described by Stratford (1994) it is not an 'inorganic egg shell' but a living organelle whose properties and functions change during the cell's lifetime. As if to emphasise its importance the wall accounts for 15-25 of cell dry weight. The yeast cell wall has been subject to a number of general reviews over the years (MacWilliam, 1970 Ballou, 1982 Fleet, 1991 Kreutzfeldt & Witt, 1991 Stratford, 1994 Cid et ai, 1995 Lipke & Ovalle, 1998 Smits et ai, 1999).

Fermentation Principles

Backslopping works for several reasons. First, backslopping ordinarily selects for those bacteria that are well suited for growth in the sausage environment. Strains that are slow to scavenge for carbohydrates, are inhibited by fermentation acids, or are sensitive to salt or nitrite are not maintained. Instead, they are displaced by more competitive bacteria that have particular metabolic and physiological advantages in that environment.Thus, even a prolific acid-forming strain does have much of a chance if it is not also tolerant of salt and nitrite and able to grow in a low oxygen environment.

Improved nutrient bioavailability

Tempeh fermentation may increase the bioavailability of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and minerals such as iron and zinc (Steinkraus et al., 1983 Nout & Rombouts, 1990 Hachmeister & Fung, 1993 Rodriguez-Burger et al., 1998 Astuti et al., 2000). The growth of the fungus reduced the concentration of low molecular carbohydrates and increased the dietary fibre content (Nout & Rombouts, 1990). Broiler chickens fed with barley tempeh gained more body weight than those fed with unfermented barley (Newman et al., 1985). However, the total or essential amino acid contents and compositions were not changed during barley tempeh fermentation with R. oligosporus alone or together with yeasts (III).

Sulfur and Nitrogen Metabolism

Although metabolism of carbohydrates is obviously critical to the outcome of the wine fermentation, metabolism of other must components is also important. How wine yeasts metabolize sulfur-containing compounds that are present in the must as normal grape constituents is particularly important. Most of the sulphur in grapes is in the form of elemental sulfur, sulfates, or as sulfur-containing amino acids. Since the range of sulfur-containing metabolic end products includes various sulfides, mercaptans, and other volatile compounds, sulfur metabolism can have a profound influence on wine quality.Yeasts can also produce sulfites, which, as already mentioned, have antimicrobial activity. In fact, even if sulfur dioxide or sulfite salts are not intentionally added, wine invariably contains sulfite due to its production by wine yeast.

Sugar metabolism by bakers yeast

Because several sugars are ordinarily present in the dough (mainly glucose and maltose), and others may be added (sucrose, high fructose corn syrup), the yeast has a variety of metabolic substrates from which to choose. In addition, more maltose may be formed in the dough during the fermentation step via the successive action of endogenous a- and p-amylases present or added to the flour and that act on damaged starch granules.The order in which these different carbohydrates are fermented by S. cere-visiae is not random, but rather is based on a specific hierarchy, with glucose being the preferred sugar.

Cereal As A Substrate

Cereals are, in general, a good medium for microbial fermentations. They contain a high level of carbohydrates, which can be used as a source of carbon and energy by microbes in fermentation (Table 1). Most of the carbohydrate in cereals is present as starch and only available for microbes after amylolytic hydrolysis. The level of free sugars in fully matured sound grains is relatively low, but the 2-5 free sugars supports the initiation of the fermentation process. The content of free sugars in rye is higher than in other cereals, whereas in oats there are only 1-2 free sugars (10). Endogenous cereal enzymes, added malt, or selected enzymes can be used to break down the starch to simple fermentable sugars (i.e., maltose and glucose). There are also strains of amylolytic microbes, molds in particular, which produce amylases efficiently and can be used for the liquefaction and hydrolysis of starch, such as Aspergillus strains in the sake process (7). Lactic acid bacteria that are...

Wood the Raw Material

The three main constituents existing separately in woods are the wood fiber, the extractives and water. The wood fiber is a ligno-cellulosc which, as will be seen later, does not differ markedly in different species except between the two main divisions of hardwoods (deciduous woods, angiosperms) and softwoods (conifers, evergreens, resinous woods, gymnosperms). The extractives arc the substances soluble in neutral solvents and may consist of gums, r.esins, tannins, volatile oils, bitter principles, carbohydrates or coloring matter. Most of the striking differences in woods, such as color and odor, are due to the extractives alone, but differences in specific gravity may be due either to extractives or to the physical structure of the fibres. Water is always a natural constituent of the wood and is present in most wood even after it has been dried by any ordinary method. It is not an important constituent chemically except that it is very variable and the amount of it present must be...

Aeration And Agitation

In single-cell protein processes, the carbon substrate yield coefficient is the most critical physiological factor (Hamer, 1979). It is also well documented that much higher carbon-substrate yield coefficients are obtained with methane or n-alkanes instead of carbohydrates (see Table 12.6). Unfortunately, cells grown on hydrocarbons have greater oxygen requirements. The oxygen requirements of a hydrocarbon yeast fermentation is

Fermentation in the Textile Industry

Size for the preparation of warp is made of many different animal, mineral, and vegetable compounds and for each constituent added to Bize is claimed a certain virtue in weaving. Some of the vegetable constituents sometimes added to size are corn starch, potato starch, sago starch, wheat starch, wheat flour, rice starch, tapioca flour, dextrins and modified starches of many kinds. In general, these grain products give strength to the warp by cementing the fibers together. In addition to these carbohydrates, other constituents added to size are fats, oils, and waxes to give pliability, and mineral matter to give weight. The carbohydrates above mentioned are used as the basis to carry the other ingredients and are first placed in the size kettle and gelatinized, after which the other ingredients are added. Due to the fact that the starch grains are gelatinized and to the presence of protein in the size, fermentation begins as soon as the mass is slightly cooled. This fermentation is...

Fermentation And Food Safety Fermentation

In general, the desirable effect of microbial activity may be caused by its biochemical activity. Microbial enzymes breaking down carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and other food components can improve food digestion in the human gastrointestinal tract and thus increase nutrient uptake. Several bacteria excrete B vitamins into food. As a result of their growth and metabolism, substances of microbial origin are found in the fermented food, including organic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and many others. These may have a profound effect on the quality of the fermented product. For instance, lactic and acetic acids produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have an inhibitory effect on spoilage bacteria in sourdough bread and yogurt, and the production of ethanol and carbon dioxide determines the acceptability of bread, beer, and wine (ethanol disappears from bread during the baking process).

Starter Culture Improvement

It has been customary to add soluble carbohydrate to silage to facilitate rapid fermentation. If a starter with the ability to hydrolyze cellulose is used in the fermentation of silage, rapid fermentation might be achieved even without adding carbohydrates. According to this thinking, a genetically modified Lb. plantarum with the ability to degrade cellulose was cultivated. An Lb. plantarum strain was transformed by inserting the ce E gene coding endoglucanase from Clostridium thermocellum (64). A transformed Lb. plantarum strain possessing endoglucanase activity may be useful in improving the fermentation of olives and cabbage by producing acids rapidly, because this strain is able to supply mono- and disac-charides through the hydrolysis of cellulose.


According to current scientific thought, the universe is approximately 15 billion years old and the Earth is approximately 4.5 billion years old. Fossil microorganisms have been found in rocks 3.3 to 3.5 billion years old (1). They were the first forms of life to appear on Earth. They were likely the blue-green algae, which contain a pigment enabling them to use the sun's radiation to synthesize carbohydrates. They contain deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) similar to all other forms of life today. They also contain the enzymes, proteases, amylases, lipases, and other enzymes required to hydrolyze proteins, starches, and lipids necessary for recycling. This was very fortunate because microorganisms have been required ever since as recyclers of organic matter. Without them, the Earth would be a giant dumping ground containing all forms of organic matter and dead bodies. Initially, microorganisms consumed organic matter, including dead organisms, as food for their...

The Carbon Source

Carbohydrates are excellent sources of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and metabolic energy. They are frequently present in the media in concentrations higher than other nutrients and are generally used in the range of 0.2-25 . The availability of the carbohydrate to the microorganism normally depends upon the complexity of the molecule. It generally may be ranked as Carbohydrates have the chemical structure of either polyhydroxyaldehydes or polyhydroxyketones. In general, they can be divided into three broad classes monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Carbohydrates have a central role in biological energetics, the production of ATP. The progressive breakdown of polysaccharides and disaccharides to simpler sugars is a major source of energy-rich compounds.111 During catabolism, glucose, as an example, is converted to carbon dioxide, water and energy. Enzymes catalyze the conversion from complex to simpler sugars. Three major interrelated pathways control carbohydrate...

Lactate Acetate

Some homofermentative LAB such as Streptococcus mutants and Lb. leichmanii produce small amounts of mannitol (28,29). Forainetal. (30) reported that a strain of Lb. plantarum deficient in both L- and D-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) produces mannitol as an end-product of glucose catabolism. LAB uses several strategies for regeneration of NAD+ during metabolism of carbohydrates. Veiga da Cumba et al. (31) reported that O. oeni produces erythritol to consume the reduced coenzymes formed in the glycolytic pathway. Hols et al. (32) showed that disruption of the Idh gene in Lb. lactis strain NZ20076 leads to the conversion of acetate into ethanol as a rescue pathway for NAD+ regeneration. Neves et al. (33) reported that a LDH-deficient (LDHd ) mutant of Lactococcus lactis transiently accumulates intracellular mannitol, which was formed from fructose-6-phosphate (F-6-P) by the combined action of mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (MPDH) and phosphatase. They showed that the formation of...

Energy Sources

Energy for growth comes from either the oxidation of medium components or from light. Most industrial micro-organisms are chemo-organotrophs, therefore the commonest source of energy will be the carbon source such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Some micro-organisms can also use hydrocarbons or methanol as carbon and energy sources.

Lactococcus Lactis

Lactococcus Lactis

Fermentation is a process in which microorganisms, in the absence of oxygen, generate energy by oxidizing carbohydrates and related compounds. It has been used since ancient times as an important method for preserving food. Vegetables, fruits, cereals, milk, and other raw materials have been treated in special ways in order to promote the growth of beneficial microorganisms while inhibiting the growth of deteriorating and pathogenic microorganisms. Fermentation will preserve the food, and it will also enhance the taste, aroma, texture, and nutritional value of the product. The preservation effect is the result of synthesis of lactic acid and heterofermentation also, acetic acids and, some times, antimicrobial substances. Besides lowering the pH level, organic acids are also toxic for many microorganisms. It is also important that the fermentable carbohydrates are completely utilized by the fermenting microorganisms and thereby made unavailable for the undesirable microorganisms. In...

Bakers Yeast

Baker's yeast is produced as a bulk product. The global yearly production amounts to 2 million tons, and a yearly growth of approximately 4 has been reported (108). The propagation of baker's yeast is based on a fed-batch process characterized by aerobic conditions and low carbohydrate concentrations (109). Except for the utilization of carbohydrates, optimization of baker's yeasts seems to focus on aspects quite different from those of brewing yeasts. Also, the number of commercially available baker's yeasts appears to be limited compared to brewing yeasts. Besides efficient utilization of maltose, maltotriose, and other fermentable carbohydrates present in the dough, the important technological properties of baker's yeasts appear to be biomass yield, formation of CO2, influence on dough structure, aroma formation, and a high resistance to stress conditions such as oxidative stress, drying, freezing, and thawing (8,109-111). The latter results in a demand for high yeast...

Nutritional needs

The four elements required by organisms in the largest quantity (gram amounts) are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. This is because these are the elemental constituents of the key cellular components of carbohydrates (Fig. 1.3), lipids (Fig. 1.4), proteins (Fig. 1.5) and nucleic acids (Fig. 1.6). Phosphorus and sulphur are also important in this regard. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and iron are demanded at the milligram level, while microgram amounts of copper, cobalt, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and nickel are needed. Finally, organisms need a preformed supply of any material that is essential to their well-being, but that they cannot themselves synthesise, namely vitamins (Table 1.2). Micro-organisms differ greatly in their ability to make these complex molecules. In all instances, vitamins form a part of coenzymes and prosthetic groups that are involved in the functioning of the enzymes catalysing the metabolism of the organism. Fig. 1.3 Carbohydrates. (a)...

Starchy Material

Wheat contains only small amount of protein. However, the glutamic acid content is high among the amino acids in wheat protein, about 32 of the total protein. About 10 of the carbohydrates is pentosan, mainly xylan. This helps the formation of melanin on the coloration of soy sauce. Wheat also contains considerable amounts of phytin-type phosphates.


Lectins have a multidomain structure consisting of an amino-terminal carbohydrate-binding lectin domain, an epidermal growth factor-homologous domain, and a number of cysteine-rich domains homologous to the consensus repeats contained within complement regulatory proteins. Three members of the selectin family have been cloned and characterized, to date. L-selectin (CD62L) is expressed by leukocytes, E-selectin (CD62E) is found on endothelial cells activated by inflammatory mediators, and P-selectin (CD62P) is found on platelets and activated endothelial cells (199). The E- and P-selectins are implicated in the initial adhesion and rolling of leukocytes on activated vascular endothelial cells that line blood vessels (200,201). Studies showing that monoclonal antibodies directed against the lectin domain of selectins blocked cell adhesion have implicated carbohydrates as ligands for selectins. Currently, a large number of sialylated, sulfated, and or fucosylated carbohydrates have been...

Lowcalorie beer

As discussed earlier in this chapter, the beer fermentation is considered complete or fully attenuated when the fermentable carbohydrates have been depleted. However, that is not to say that there are not carbohydrates in beer. In fact, wort contains a mixture of fermentable sugars (i.e., glucose and maltose), as well as more complex, non-fermentable sugars, in particular, dextrins and limit dextrins. The latter are a result of the incomplete hydrolysis of starch during the mashing step. Whereas the simple sugars are readily fermented, the complex carbohydrate fraction is not. Importantly, however, these carbohydrates are caloric, meaning they can be hydrolyzed to glucose during digestion, adsorbed into the blood stream, and either used as energy or stored as fat. Calories can be reduced by somehow reducing or removing the nonfermentable but caloric carbohydrates from beer. The strategy that was adopted, and which is still used today, adds enzymes that hydrolyze a portion of the...


The fermentation of kimchi occurs mainly because of the raw materials' endogenous microorganisms, especially in the brined cabbages. Although fermentation may be initiated by various microorganisms, LAB ferments sugars in the cabbage and other subingredients that gradually dominate other anaerobic microorganisms by organic acid formation. Various chemical, physical, and biological factors also may contribute directly to the growth of microorganisms and to the extent of fermentation. Several factors influence kimchi fermentation kinds of microorganisms, salt concentration, fermentable carbohydrates, other available nutrients, the presence of inhibitory compounds, the absence of oxygen, pH, and fermenting temperature. The salt concentration, temperature, and pH have a great effect on the rate and extent of the fermentation by LAB. It takes a shorter time to make optimally ripened kimchi when the temperature is increased and the salt concentration is decreased. Detailed microbiological...

Oxygen Requirements

Nutritional factors can alter the oxygen demand of the culture. Penicillium chrysogenum will utilize glucose more rapidly than lactose or sucrose, and it therefore has a higher specific oxygen uptake rate when glucose is the main carbon source (Johnson, 1946). Therefore, when there is the possibility of oxygen limitation due to fast metabolism, it may be overcome by reducing the initial concentration of key substrates in the medium and adding additional quantities of these substrates as a continuous or semi-continuous feed during the fermentation (see Tables 4.1. and 4.15 Chapters 2 and 9). It can also be overcome by changing the composition of the medium, incorporating higher carbohydrates (lactose, starch, etc.) and proteins which are not very rapidly metabolized and do not support such a large specific oxygen uptake rate.


Fermentation is carried out by facultative anaerobic homofermentative strains such as Lactobacillum plantarum and Pediococcus cereviseae. L plantarum produces acetic and lactic acids as well as ethanol and gas (CO2 and H2). The peppers are then immersed in 10 brine for 4 to 6 weeks, sometimes with 0.5 to 1 sucrose as well as hot pepper cell fluid containing carbohydrates, nitrogen compounds, and minerals among other things. The cell fluid from the peppers, however, tends to dilute the brine. For this reason, it is necessary to add 1 salt daily during the first week, and three times a week during the rest of the immersion time, in order to keep the desired brine concentration (18-20 ). The peppers must be completely covered by the brine at all times.

Meat Ingredients

Problems in fermented sausage that may result from low-quality meat ingredients can also include ''greening,'' a color change from peroxides produced by undesirable bacteria. The peroxides typically are produced during fermentation and may cause greenish colors from the meat pigment when the pigment is exposed to air. Other problems that can develop from undesirable bacterial growth during fermentation include a mushy texture, resulting from proteolysis by some organisms. Production of carbon dioxide gas during fermentation is highly undesirable and may occur if high numbers of heterofermentative microorganisms are present. The result of gas production is gas bubbles in the product or even breakage of casings if gas production is extreme. Product pH may be altered if micrococci are present in the early stages of fermentation. Some conversion of carbohydrates may occur without


Butanol producers use a wide variety of carbohydrates, including hexoses, pentoses, oligosaccharides, and poly-saccharides as fermentation substrates, and including starch, molasses, whey, wood hydrolysates, pentosans, in-ulin, and sulfite liquor. Cellulosic materials are one of the most attractive substrates for chemicals, as they are the most abundant and least expensive raw material. Few at Recently, a limited sporulating C. acetobutylicum E604 mutant strain has been developed by treating the parent C. acetobutylicum strain (ATCC 4259) with ethane methane sulfonate (61). This mutant strain has been used to ferment a high-carbohydrate substrate concentration in a multistage, continuous-temperature programmed-fermen-tation process followed by batch fermentation (11), to yield an extraordinarily high concentration of butanol ( 20 g L) and total solvent ( 30 g L) production (61). This mutant strain has higher butyrate uptake rate (0.33 g L) in comparison to the parent strain (0.26 g L)...

Caa 636

Capillary action 680, 710 Capillary forces 586 Capillary theory 710 Capital cost 231,279,318,759 Capital investment 724, 759 Capping operation 625 Carbohydrate feed 383 Carbohydrate solution 75 Carbohydrates 128, 129, 135 Carbon 43, 126, 128, 666 Carbon dioxide analyzer 15 Carbon dioxide evolution rate 678 Carbon dioxide exchange rate 682 Carbon filters 596 Carbon membranes 285 Carbon sources 123, 135 Carbon tetrachloroflurocarbons 637 Carbonates 148 Carboxylic acid 393 Carboxylic resins 425 Carnitine 147 Carrousel 430 Cartridge filters 75, 283 Cartridge filtration 243 Cascade control 698 Case hardening 711 Catabolic pathways 147 Catabolism 129, 130 Catabolite inhibition 132 Catabolite repression 132 Catalytic incineration 665 Categories 1,2, and 3 22, 23 Catharanthus roseus 45 Cation exchange 383 Cation exchange resins 599 Cation exchanger 469 Cation resins 409

Home Distillation

Carbohydrates for fermentation AldoHexoses Fructomers and glucomers Glucboat and gluchair Glucyclation Pectin Cellulose (see Carbohydrates) Channeling and choking Clamps (see Couplings) Clausius-Clapeyron equation Cleaning and polishing Coffey still Cold finger condenser Cold infusion Column Basic biochemistry Basics of fermentation Carbohydrates for fermentation Dr. Cone's methods Enzymes Gloved cold finger condenser Glucose (see Carbohydrates) Graham condenser Gram mole (see Avogadro's number) Comparison chart Cylinders Marbles Raschig rings Scrubbers Pectin (see Carbohydrates) Stability of column, supercooling Starch (see Carbohydrates) Steam distillation Stills, types of Coffey still Compound still Continuous still Fractionating still Pot still Spirit still Survival still Traditional whiskey still Wash still Wok-in-pot still Sublimation Sucrose (see Carbohydrates)


Parameter For Bread Processing

The milled product are either activated or inactivated during the conversion of the substrate, resulting in the degradation of polymer substances, in particular of nonstarch carbohydrates (e.g., pentosans). Some amino acids and peptides are also released. Some of the products of degradation are digested by the microorganisms others act as precursors of flavor components (34). The enzymic degradation of polymer carbohydrates in conjunction with the change in the density of the dough owing to the formation of carbon dioxide results in a marked reduction in the viscosity of the sourdough. As metabolic performance and the accompanying substrate conversion depend on the proliferation of microorganisms, sourdough production generally takes longer than all the other process steps required to make common bread varieties. Production of the well-known San Francisco sourdough bread is an exception, the length of time it takes to produce the San Francisco sourdough corresponding roughly to the...


Distinguishing between species of Saccharomyces is based primarily on morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties. These yeasts usually have a round spherical or ovoid appearance, but they may be elongated with a pseudohyphae. The sugar fermentation patterns and the assimilation of carbon sources are key factors for speciation (Table 26 also see Chapter 9 for beer yeast speciation). Other specific diagnostic tests include hyphae formation, ascospore formation, resistance to cycloheximide, and growth temperatures. Several physiological traits vary among the Sac-charomyces and are useful not only for classification, but are important for strain selection. Some strains, for example, are very osmophilic and halotolerant, and can grow in foods containing high concentrations of carbohydrates (e.g., high sugar grapes) or salt (soy sauce).

Oils And Fats

Oils were first used as carriers for antifoams in antibiotic processes (Solomons, 1969). Vegetable oils (olive, maize, cotton seed, linseed, soya bean, etc.) may also be used as carbon substrates, particularly for their content of the fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid, because costs are competitive with those of carbohydrates. In an analysis of commodity prices for sugar, soya bean oil and tallow between 1978 and 1985, it would have been cheaper on an available energy basis to use sugar during 1978 to mid 1979 and late 1983 to 1985, whereas oil would have been the chosen substrate in the intervening period (Stowell, 1987). Bader et al. (1984) discussed factors favouring the use of oils instead of carbohydrates. A typical oil contains approximately 2.4 times the energy of glucose on a per weight basis. Oils also have a volume advantage as it would take 1.24 dm3 of soya bean oil to add 10 kcal of energy to a fermenter, whereas it would take 5 dm3 of glucose or sucrose...

Media Development

There are many and varied conditions worldwide which impact on the cost of fermentation raw materials. These can be climatic, e.g., drought or floods, or political, e.g., government subsidies for, or restriction on, farm products or a national ethanol fuel program. These conditions greatly affect the world price of sugar, molasses and corn and are responsible for much of the variability. The rise and fall of sugar prices affects all sources of carbohydrates. To ensure against the effects of wide swings, aprudent course of action would be to develop processes that permit alternate sources. The demands of the final product may have an important bearing on the selection of the fermentation ingredients. Odor and color on the one hand may play a role, on the other product purity specifications which are very demanding, as is the case for vaccines, require extremely pure nutrients.

Flour Type

The flour in the sourdough is the substrate for the fermenting microorganisms. Wheat and rye flour are mostly used for sourdough making, but maize flour can also be used (28,69). The amount of fermentable carbohydrates in the flour varies with the type of cereal, but in particular with the activity of endogenous enzymes in the flour. The activities of amylases, xylanases, and peptidases are important for liberation of the fermentable low-molecular-weight carbohydrates and amino acids. In the dough stage, the a-amylase cannot degrade intact starch granules, but some granules are damaged during the milling process and may be partly degraded in the dough. The content of fermentable carbohydrates in wheat flour is 1-2 (67,75). The content of maltose increased during the sourdough fermentation from 1.5 to 2.4 , and the content of fructose from 0.05 to 0.45 in a sourdough fermented with Lc mesenteroides (75). The content of glucose was unchanged at the level of 0.17 as a result of a balance...


Lactic and acetic acids are produced mainly by carbohydrate fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Their production depends on the type and concentration of carbohydrates added to the meat batter, on technological factors, and particularly on the strains of lactic acid bacteria (71). In fact, acidification rate constitutes a major criterion of selection for lactic acid bacteria. Odor or aroma is by far the most important component of flavor because of the high sensitivity of nasal receptors to the numerous volatile components released during chewing and ingestion. The number of aroma compounds derived from spices and smoking (northern-type sausages) exceeds that of compounds derived from metabolism (107). It is clear that northern products are characterized by a smoked flavor in relation to numerous compounds such as phenols, methoxyphenols, and cyclic ketones (108,109). Garlic addition to sausages result in high levels of sulfur compounds with strong aroma. Similarly, addition of...

Furanone Formation

4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2)-furanone (HDMF) and 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2)-fura-none (HMMF) are derived from a Maillard reaction. During thermal treatment of carbohydrates, several a-dicarbonyls are formed (65). The condensation of the carbonyl group of the reducing sugar with the amino compound gives a glycosylamine. Subsequently, this rearranges and dehydrates, via deoxyosone, to various sugar dehydration and degradation products such as furfural and furanone derivatives. When a ketose is involved instead of an aldose sugar, then a ketosylamine is formed that undergoes a Heyns rearrangement to form a 2-amino-2-deoxyaldose (Heyns product). At temperature above 100 C, 1-amino-1-deoxy-2-ketoses undergo 2,3-enolization to give a 1-amino-2,3-enediol from which an amine is eliminated to form a methyl-2,3-dicarbonyl intermediate (66). 1,2-Enolization of the Amadori product will result, after dehydration and deamination, in the formation of a 3-deoxyosone. The 3-deoxyosone is readily converted...

Atkins Low Carb Diet Recipes

Atkins Low Carb Diet Recipes

The Atkins Diet is here. Dr Atkins is known for his great low carb diets. Excluding, Dr Atkins carb counter and Dr Atkins New Diet Revolution.

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