For all reboilers examined to date, A(i) has been so small, both statically and dynamically, as to be negligible. It therefore will be omitted in the remainder of this book. It is advisable, however, to calculate A(j) for any new system as a check.

We have also found that the sensible heat effect of the liquid mass in the column base or separator is small. Heat-transfer lags are typically only several seconds; vapor flow from the separator follows steam flow almost instantaneously.

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