We wish to thank the authors, publishers and manufacturing companies listed below for allowing us to reproduce either original or copyright material.


S. Abe (Fig. 3.13), A. W. Nienow (Figs 9.13 B-F and 7.10, 7.11 and9.19 from Trends in Biotechnology, 8 (1990)), (Figs 5.2a, 5.2b, 5.2c, 5.3a, 5.3b, 5.5, 5.7, 7.18 and Table 5.2 from Introduction to Industrial sterilization, Academic Press, London (1968)), F. G. Shinskey (Fig. 8.11, R. M. Talcott (Figs 10.11, 10.12 and 10.13) and D. I. C. Wang (Table 12.7).

Publishers and manufacturing companies

Academic Press, London and new York: Fig. 1.2 from Turner, W. B. (1971) Fungal Metabolites', Fig. 6.7 from Norris, J. R. and Ribbons, D. W. (1972) Methods in Microbiology, 7b, Fig. 7.9 from Solomons, G. L. (1969) Materials and Methods in Fermentation-, Fig. 7.14 from journal of Applied Bacteriology 21 (1958); Fig. 7.45 from Rose, A. H. (1978), Fig. 7.51 from Economic Microbiology, Vol. 4 (1979), Economic Microbiology, Vol. 2; Figs 7.1 and 10.27 and Table 12.2 from Rose, A. H. (1979) Economic Microbiology, Vol. 3.; Fig.7.55 from Spiers, R. E. and Griffiths, J. B. (1988) Animal Cell Biotechnology, Vol. 3; Figs 9.21 and 12.1 from Nisbet, L. J. and Winstanley, D. J. (1983) Microbial Products 2. Development and Production; Fig. 10.6 from Advances in Applied Microbiology, 12; Table 4.5 from Cook, A. H. (1962) Barley and Malt, Biochemistry and Technology, Tables 8.3 from Aiba, S., Humphrey, A. E. (1973) Biochemical Engineering (2nd Edition).

Alfa Laval Engineering Ltd, Brentford: Figs 5.8, 5.9 and 5.11.

Alfa Laval Sharpies Ltd, Camberley: Fig. 10.16a, 10.16b, 10.17a, 10.17b and 10.20.

American Chemical Society: Fig. 7.43 reprinted with permission from Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 43 (1951); Fig. 7.49 reprinted with permission from Ladisch, M. R. and Bose, A. (1992) Harnessing Biotechnology for the 21st Century. ACS Conference Proceedings Series. American Society for Microbiology: Fig. 3.36, 5.11 and 9.17. American Society for Testing and Materials: Fig. 6.11. Copyright ASTM, reprinted with permission.

Applikon dependable Instruments BV, Gloucester, UK: Fig. 7.16 and Table 7.5. Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd: Figs 1.1 and 2.8. Bio/Technology: Table 3.6.

British Mycological Society: Fig. 7.48.

British Valve and Actuator Manufacturers Association (BVAMA): Fig. 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.37 and 7.38.

Butterworth-Heinemann: Fig. 6.10, 7.22 and 7.25 from Collins, C. H. and Beale, A. J. (1992) Safety in Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Table 3.7 from Vanek, Z. and Hostelek, Z. (1986) Overproduction of Microbial Metabolites. Strain Improvement and Process Strategies.

Canadian Chemical News, Ottawa: Figs 10.33a and 10.33b.

Chapman and Hall: Fig. 7.46 from Hough, J. S. et al. (1971) Malting and Brewing Science.

Chilton Book Company Ltd, Radnor, Pennsylvania, USA: Figs 8.2, 8.3, 8.4,8.5, 8.8 and 8.9 Reprinted from Engineers Handbook, Vol. 1 by B. Liptak. Copyright 1969 by the author. Reprinted with the permission of the publisher.

Marcel Dekker Inc.: Figs 6.4, 6.5 and 6.6. Reprinted with permission from Vandamme, E. J. (1984) Biotechnology of Industrial Antibiotics.

Elsevier Science Ltd, Kidlington: Fig. 2.12 reprinted from Process Biochemistry, 1 (1966); Figs 5.4, 5.5, 5.12, 5.20 reprinted from Process Biochemistry, 2 (1967); Fig. 10.4 reprinted from Process Biochemistry, 16 (1981); Table 6.2 reprinted from Process Biochemistry, 13 (1978); Table 2.3 reprinted from Journal of Biotechnology, 22 (1992); Fig. 7.47a from Endeavour (NS), 2 (1978), Fig. 8.12, 8.20, 8.22 and 8.24 reprinted from Cooney, C. L. and Humphrey, A. E. (1985) Comprehensive Biotechnology, Vol 2; Figs 9.2 and 10.34 reprinted from Moo-Young, M. et al. (1980) Advances in Biotechnology, Vol. 1; Fig. 10.3 from Blanch, H. W. et al (1985) Comprehensive Biotechnology 3, Figs 10.9a and 10.9b reprinted from Coulson, J. M. and Richardson, J. F. (1968) Chemical Engineering (2nd edition), Fig. 10.30 reprinted from Journal of Chromatography, 43 (1969).

Elsevier Trends Journals, Cambridge: Fig. 3.33, reprinted from Trends in Biotechnology, 10 (1992), 7.10, 7.11 and 9.19 reprinted from Trends in Biotechnology, 8 (1990).

Ellis Horwood: Fig. 9.16 and 10.5. Tables 3.5 and 9.3

Dominic Hunter, Birtley: Fig. 5.19.

Inceltech LH, Reading: Figs 7.4 and 7.17.

International Thomson Publishing Services: Figs 5.13 and 7.24 from Yu, P. L. (1990) Fermentation Technologies; Industrial Applications', Fig. 6.3 from Vandamme, E. i. (1989)

Biotechnology of Vitamins, Pigments and Growth Factors and Fig. 3.9 from Fogarty, W. M. and Kelly, K. T. (1990) Microbial Enzymes and Biotechnology, (2nd Edition).

Institute of Chemical Engineering: Fig. 11.6 from Effluent Treatment in the Process Industries (1983).

Institute of Water Pollution Control: Fig. 11.5.

IRL Press, Fig. 4.3. from Poole et al. Microbial Growth Dynamics, (1990), Fig. 6.1 from McNeil, B. and Harvey, L. M. Fermentation—A Practical Approach (1990), Fig. 8.26. from Bryant, T. N. and Wimpenny, J. W. T. Computers in Microbiology: A Practical Approach (1989).

Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology and Agrochem-istry: Fig. 3.23 from Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 36

Kluwer Academic Publishers: Fig. 7.52 reprinted with permission from Varder-Sukan, F. and Sukan, S. S. (1992) Recent Advances in Biotechnology.

Life Science Laboratories Ltd, Luton: Figs 7.6 and 7.7.

MacMillan: Table 1.1 from Prescott and Dunn's Industrial Microbiology, edited by Reed, G. (1982).

Marshall Biotechnology Ltd: Fig. 7.23.

Mcgraw Hill, New York: Fig. 7.27 reproduced with permission from Chemical Engineering, 94 (1987), also Fig. 7.36 from King, R. C. (1967) Piping Handbook (5th edition), also Figs 8.21 and 8.23 from Considine, D. M. (l91A)Process Instrumentation and Control Handbook (2nd Edition) and also Fig. 10.10 from Perry, R. H. and Chilton, C. H. (1973) Chemical Engineer's Handbook (5th Edition).

Microbiology Research Foundation of Japan, Tokyo: Fig. 3.21 from Journal of General and Applied Microbiology, 19

New Brunswick Ltd, Hatfield, Figs 7.5, 7.15, 7.26, 7.54.

New York Academy of Sciences: Figs 2.14, 3.3, 3.4 and 3.31.

Pall Process Filtration Ltd, Portsmouth: Figs 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17 and 5.18.

Royal Netherlands Chemical Society: Table 12.4

Royal Society of Chemistry: Fig. 6.9 and Table 3.8.

The Royal Society, London: Fig. 7.47b.

Science and Technology Letters, Northwood, UK: Figs 9.20a and 9.20b.

Society for General Microbiology: Figs 3.29, 3.34 and 3.35 and Tables 3.2 and 9.2.

Society for Industrial Microbiology, USA: Fig. 9.18.

Southern Cotton Oil Company, Memphis, USA: Table 4.8.

Spirax Sarco Ltd, Cheltenham, UK: Figs 7.39, 7.40, 7.41 and 7.42.

Springer Verlag GmbH and Co. KG: Table 7.4 reproduced from Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 30 (1989), Fig. 8.7 reproduced from Advances in Biochemical Engineering, 13 (1979), Table 12.2 from Advances in Chemical Engineering, 37 (1988).

John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York: Fig. 3.2 from Journal of Applied Chemistry Biotechnology 22 (1972) Fig. 3.13 from Yamada, K. et al. (1972) The Microbial Production of Amino Acids.: Fig. 7.50 from Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 42 (1993), Fig. 7.53 from Biotechnology and Bioengineering Symposium, 4 (1974), Fig. 7.44 from Biotechnology Bioengineering 9 (1967), Fig. 9.4 from Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 12 (1970), Table 12.6 from Biotechnology and Bioengineering;, 15 (1973); Fig. 8.11 from Shinskey, F. G. (1973) pH and plon Control in Process and Waste Streams.-, Figs 10.11, 10.12 and 10.13 from Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd Edition (1980); Figs 10.21 and 10.22 from Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 16 (1974); Fig. 10.23 from Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 19 (1977); Table 12.7 from Wang, D. I. C. et al. (1979) Fermentation and Enzyme Technology.

We also wish to thank Mr Jim Campbell (Pall Process Filtration Ltd, Portsmouth), Mr Nelson Nazareth (Life Science Laboratories Ltd, Luton), Mr Peter Senior (Applikon Dependable Instruments BV, Tewkesbury) and Mr Nicholas Vosper (New Brunswick Ltd, Hatfield) for advice on fermentation equipment and Dr Geoffrey Leaver and Mr Ian Stewart (Warren Spring Laboratories, Stevenage) for advice on safety and containment and Mr Michael Whitaker for his comments on a student friendly book design.

Last but not least we wish to express our thanks to Lesley, John, David and Abigail Stanbury and Lorna, Michael and Ben Whitaker for their encouragement and patience during all stages in the preparation of this edition of the book.

December, 1994.

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Vinegar For Your Health

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